Oldal kiválasztása

cat060 (Parmigianino 1883)


Studies for Lucretia, Proserpina, and Mercury

c. 1535−38
Pen and wash in brown ink, heightened
188 × 96 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1883




The drawing was inspired by Marcantonio Raimondi’s engraving of Lucretia that Parmigianino transformed into an elegant slim figure. For the Roman heroine’s right arm grasping a dagger, he drew a small detail study at top of the sheet, based on a live model holding a staff. The work was intended for Parmigianino’s lost painting representing the suicide of Lucretia.

cat056 (Parmigianino 1888)


Study for a Group

c. 1525−27
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk, heightened
143 × 161 mm
Museum of Fine  1888




Although no commisions for frescoes from Parmigianino’s Roman years are documented, many compositional drawings by the artist have survived specifically for wall paintings. On the Budapest sheet he developed a detail of a large composition, perhaps a scene from the lives of the apostles. The painter, inexperienced in large-scale compositions, turned to the Vatican frescoes of his exemplar, Raphael.

cat055 (Parmigianino 1893)


Compositional Study with the Life of the Virgin

c. 1524−27
Pen and wash in grey ink
191 × 129 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1893




The masterly pen drawing was inspired by Marcantonio Raimondi’s famous engraving the Quos Ego. However, Parmigianino borrowed only its peculiar structure, and replaced the classical theme with scenes from the life of the Virgin. The drawing may have served as a study for a painted or engraved frontispiece of a book, or for a goldsmith’s work, but it is also possible that Parmigianino had no specific aim and intended it simply as a compositional study.



cat052 (Vincidor 2266)

Tommaso Vincidor
After Raphael

Playing Putti

c. 1520
Pen and wash in brown ink, black chalk, heightened
213 × 288 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2266



Raphael’s assistant, Tommaso Vincidor was involved in the painting of the frescoes of the Vatican Logge. For the decoration of the walls of the Sala di Costantino, a tapestry series was commissioned by Pope Leo X. Based on the cartoons executed after designs by Giovanni da Udine, their weaving in Brussels was supervised by Vincidor from 1520. The putti of the playful scenes, surrounded by animals and festoons of flowers and fruit, derive from Raphael.

cat039 (Perino 2194)

Attributed to Perino del Vaga

The Triumph of David

c. 1516–19
Pen and wash in brown ink
262 × 397 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2194




Pope Leo X entrusted the decoration of the second-floor loggia of the Vatican palace to Raphael. The painter limited his participation to the preparation of designs and supervision of work, while the execution of the frescoes of Biblical themes and the all’antica stuccoes was delegated to his workshop. The severely abraded Budapest sheet, squared for transfer, was probably drawn by Perino del Vaga, who was perhaps also responsible for the painting of the corresponding vault fresco. The composition derives from a relief of the triumphal arch of Titus.

cat038 (Raphael 1943)


Head of an Angel

c. 1519–20
Black chalk
308 × 254 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1943


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The decorative scheme of the Sala di Costantino, the great papal audience hall in the Vatican Palace, was conceived by Raphael, but was painted by his two principal colleagues, Giovanni Francesco Penni and Giulio Romano. The chalk drawing elaborates the head of an angel accompanying an enthroned pope, but was never executed in this form. Possibly intended as a cartoon, a full-size drawing for the transfer of contours onto the wall, it was not employed in the end. After Raphael’s death, Giulio repeated the angel’s head of the Budapest drawing in unaltered form on his cartoon for The Stoning of Saint Stephen altarpiece for the church of Santo Stefano in Genoa.

cat037 (Giulio 2126)

Giulio Romano

A Repast

c. 1531–34
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk, heightened with white
220 × 417 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2126




Between 1531–1534 Giulio Romano and his workshop was decorating the north-east wing of the Palazzo del Tè in Mantua. In the Loggia della Grotta, the garden-side loggia attached to the private apartments of Federico II Gonzaga, stages of human life were represented by genre-like scenes and moralizing allegories. This pen drawing is a study for the central fresco of the vault, depicting a family feast. The two standing figures are based on Roman models: the angel’s pose was borrowed from Michelangelo’s marble Risen Christ, while the water-pourer repeats a servant by Raphael in the Villa Farnesina.

cat036 (Giulio 1877)

Giulio Romano

The Entombment

Late 1520s
Pen and brown ink, over black chalk
143 × 215 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1877




The compositional study was probably made for the altarpiece, today lost, for the San Domenico Church in Mantua. For the composition, Giulio Romano relied on Raphael’s drawings for his painting of the same subject, completed in 1507, for the Baglioni Chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato in Perugia. In the fragmentary Budapest sheet, Giulio was searching the poses of the dynamically interacting figures.

cat035 (Polidoro 1858)

Polidoro da Caravaggio
(c. 1499–c. 1543)

Design for a Decoration

c. 1520–24
Pen and wash in brown ink
320 × 217 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1858




The painter of Lombardian origin and a member of Raphael’s workshop, Polidoro da Caravaggio participated in the decoration of the Vatican Logge from 1518. After Raphael’s death, he painted façade frescoes of several Roman palaces. The Budapest drawing is a design for a barrel-vaulted chamber of a palace or a villa. The grotesques of the ceiling and the illusionistic wall-decoration with fictive windows, portrait busts, and putti upholding a coat of arms was inspired by contemporary and antique models.

cat034 (Perino 1838)

Perino del Vaga

Study for a Wall Decoration

c. 1537
Pen and wash in brown and grey ink, over black chalk
420 × 290 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1838




When Perino returned to Rome, one of his first commissions was the decoration of the Massimi Chapel in SS. Trinità dei Monti. The fresco cycle representing Christ’s miracles, already destroyed, was executed in 1538–1539. The meticulously drawn Budapest sheet, made in preparation of the south wall of the chapel, was most probably intended for the patron, Angelo Massimi. The central panel depicting the healing Christ is surrounded by four smaller all’antica scenes and grotesque stucco decorations.

cat033 (Perino 1930)

Perino del Vaga

Sketches for the Decoration of a Ceiling

c. 1528–30
Pen and brown ink
203 × 150 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1930




During his decade-long stay in Genoa, Perino decorated the renovated Palazzo Doria with frescoes and stuccoes. The works celebrated Andrea Doria as defender of the Genoese Republic with references to mythology and Roman history. The sheet contains rapid sketches for the painted spandrels of the ceiling of the atrium. The figures, bound by lines indicating the architecture, can be identified as Neptune and Hebe at the top, Hercules and Vesta at the bottom. The smaller groups in between are early ideas for the historical scenes of the lunettes.

cat032 (Perino 1868)

Perino del Vaga

Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths

c. 1545–47
Black chalk
197 × 284 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1868




The Cassetta Farnese, a silver-gilt casket made for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, was decorated with six oval rock crystals, engraved with mythological subjects (Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples). Two of the compositions are based upon antique prototypes, whereas the other four were designed by Perino del Vaga in the first half of the 1540s. Related to the corresponding scene, the Budapest drawing lacks the characteristics of finished studies. It may have been made after the crystal for another purpose, most probably a bronze plaquette.

cat031 (Perino 1794)

Perino del Vaga

Study for Saint George and the Dragon (recto)







Figure Studies (verso)

c. 1535
Pen and brown ink, over red chalk
215 × 258 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1794






The study was realized in the acquaintance of Raphael’s Saint George, painted around 1504–5 in Florence (Washington, National Gallery of Art). However, its direct source was rather Fra Bartolommeo’s painting of the same subject, already lost, that Perino could have seen in the palace of Francesco del Pugliese during his Florentine stay in 1522–23. The Budapest drawing, made in Perino’s mature style, was executed only a decade later, from the painter’s memory or after his earlier sketches.
After the Sack of Rome in 1527, Perino del Vaga moved to Genoa, where until his return to Rome in 1538, he was primarily occupied with the decoration of the palace of his patron, Andrea Doria. The sketches on the verso also relate to the Palazzo Doria: the nude studies may be associated with the frescoes of the Stanza di Psiche, while the seated nude was made for one of the virtues in the Stanza delle Metamorfosi.

cat026 (Giulio 2419)

Giulio Romano

Erotic Scene

after 1524
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk,
heightened with white
130 × 226 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2419




Giulio Romano left Rome in 1524 to enter the service of Federico II Gonzaga at the Mantuan ducal court. Thus he avoided the Roman scandal caused by his pornographic drawings reproduced in engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi. By the order of Pope Clement VII, the series I modi (The Ways), depicting erotic postures, was destroyed and the engraver imprisoned. Giulio’s Budapest drawing of an older man and a young woman is close in spirit to the series I modi, but was executed already in Mantua. Similar erotic scenes appear among the frescoes of the Palazzo del Tè.

cat022 (Raphael 1934)



c. 1511−14
190 × 75 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1934


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The scrupulously executed classical nude, evoking the Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, is usually associated with the frescoes of the Psyche Loggia in the Villa Farnesina, Rome, completed in 1519. However, the drawing may be related to the frescoes only by virtue of its subject: not only its manner is distinct from Raphael’s late drawings, but contrary to the preparatory studies for the Loggia, almost exclusively in red chalk, it was executed in silverpoint. Although the Budapest Venus was not intended in preparation for a print, the figure reappears in an almost identical form in one of the last engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi and Raphael, The Judgement of Paris.

cat020 (Perino 1864)

Perino del Vaga

Studies for Friezes and a Crouching Female Nude (recto)






Studies of Figures and a Frieze (verso)

c. 1537−39
Pen and brown ink, some traces of red chalk
275 × 395 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1864






On the sheet containing studies on both sides, Perino recorded frieze and figure studies developed from various artworks. The arrangement of the motifs indicates that the painter used the sheet first for the friezes, and filled the remaining spaces with figure studies. The source for the friezes imitating antique reliefs and depicting putti, satyrs and nymphs was probably a painted Roman façade by Polidoro da Caravaggio.

cat019 (Perino 1917-191)

Perino del Vaga

Studies for Grotesques

c. 1545
Pen and brown ink
277 × 185 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1917-191




The painter of Florentine origin, Perino del Vaga joined Raphael’s Roman workshop around 1517. Raphael and his assistants recreated antique grotesques on the evidence of remains in the recently discovered chambers of Nero’s palace, the Domus Aurea, decorated with diverting ensembles of interlaced garlands, bizarre animals, still-life and geometrical motifs. This sheet of studies relates to Perino’s last major undertaking, the decorations of the papal suite at Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome, executed from 1545. The inscriptions at left are instructions for the colouring.

cat017 (Giulio Romano 1876)

Giulio Romano

Frieze of an Acanthus Scroll

c. 1520
Pen and brown ink
264 × 148 mm
Inv. no. 1876




The model for the drawing was inspired by an Antique pillar or pilaster, which belonged to the famous Roman collection of cardinal Andrea della Valle. Motifs of these fragments reappear also in the Vatican Logge decorated by the Raphael workshop. During his career, Giulio repeated the acanthus scroll in many versions: they recur in the garden-side loggia of the Villa Madama, Rome, frescoed and stuccoed together with Giovanni da Udine in 1520, and later in his Mantuan works executed between 1524–1540.

cat013 (Anon K.58.983)

Anonymous Artist


c. 1509−10
Pen and wash in brown ink
473 × 325 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest K.58.983





The Budapest drawing is one of the earliest representations of the Laocoön group, deriving from the years after the rediscovery of the famous antique sculpture in 1506 and its subsequent transfer to the Vatican. The sheet represents the fragmentary sculpture placed on the ground before a niche, which makes it one of the most significant documents of the marble’s original state preceding its restoration in the early 1520s.

cat010 (Franco 2196)

Giovanni Battista Franco

Study for a Group, after Raphael’s Disputa

c. 1545
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk
241 × 395 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2196




The Venetian painter and engraver was active mainly in Rome and Florence. His Budapest drawing is a copy after Raphael’s preliminary study for the group at lower left in the Disputa. The original drawing, today in the British Museum, London, shows a change in Raphael’s initial concept: here he introduced the altar, the central motif for both the arrangement and content of the fresco. The Sacrament is the physical manifestation of God’s presence, and its mystical transformation into Christ’s flesh inspires the debate of the assembled theologians.

cat009 (Raphael 1935)


Design for a Temporary Decoration (recto)

after 1509
Pen and brown ink




Sketches for the Disputa (verso)

c. 1508–9
Pen and brown ink
200 × 153 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1935



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The particular purpose of the pen study of the recto side is unknown, but it was possibly produced for a temporary decoration. The inclusion of trophies and Mars suggests a victory celebration, but the putto with the inverted torch rather indicates a funerary context. Raphael borrowed the pose of the main figure and the putto from the famous Antique sculpture, the Apollo Belvedere.
Raphael arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1508 to decorate the Vatican suite of rooms, the so-called Stanze, of Pope Julius II. The fresco of the Disputation of the Holy Sacrament, in the first room called Stanza della Segnatura, represents the Church on earth and in heaven, with the Trinity above an altar. Raphael created more preliminary drawings for this composition than for any other work in his career; no fewer than thirty sheets survived. This sketch for a group of cherubs and an angel of the verso side was drawn for the upper right part of the fresco.

cat004 (Raphael 2195)


The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195


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Carefully detailed and modelled drawings were needed to aid engravers in the execution of prints. The Budapest sheet was intended for this purpose, and embodies the last preparatory stage of Marcantonio Raimondi’s engraving in which Raphael’s contribution was required. Among the half a dozen drawings that survived for the print, the Budapest drawing is the only one in which all figures are found, except the two slain infants in the foreground, and even the parapet of the bridge is included. The painter needed a handling of the pen that was ideally suited to an engraving. In order to guide the printmaker, he concentrated on clarifying the lighting of the intricate multi-figured composition. This aim may lay behind the strictly descriptive manner of the drawing.

cat002 (Raphael 1936)


Nude Studies, probably for Saint Jerome

c. 1504–5
Pen and brown ink
238 × 146 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1936
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Between 1504–1508 Raphael was active mostly in Florence. He executed a whole series of pen drawings of male figures in this period, including the Saint Jerome. As part of a series of saints, it was not made for a certain commission, but as a creative exercise. The Saint Jerome belongs to Raphael’s earliest pen drawings and bears the marks of the initial, failed attempts of the young draughtsman unfamiliar with the new technique. The contrast of the confidently drawn torso and the misconstructed and awkwardly attached left arm suggests that instead of drawing from life, Raphael worked from pattern sheets preserving motifs of various famous artworks.

cat001 (Raphael 1779)


The Assumption of the Virgin

c. 1503–4
Pen and brown ink
158 × 193 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1779


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The drawing is related to Raphael’s first Perugian altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin (Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana) for the Oddi chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato. The meticulously executed pen drawing was created for the patron for approval and provided an opportunity to request modifications before the painting’s execution. The Assumption of the Virgin originates from the early stage of preparation; Raphael painted the Coronation of the Virgin in the end. The sheet’s poor condition and the vertical crease along its central axis indicates that it was originally folded to a small size and attached to the contract.