Oldal kiválasztása

Raphael
(1483−1520)

Venus

c. 1511–14
Silverpoint
190 × 75 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1934

 

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Technique

Probably silver-based metalpoint, seemingly retouched in light brown ink, on cream coloured prepared paper. The light lines, that appeared to be silverpoint, visible in the infrared reflectograph were surprisingly not confirmed by the X-ray fluorescence analysis, which could detect traces neither of tin, iron, nor silver. We would like to thank Oliver Hahn (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung Arbeitsgruppe ‘Kunst- und Kulturgutanalyse’) for performing the examination.

Provenance

unidentified stamp (scraped out); Joshua Reynolds (Lugt 2364); Antonio Cesare Poggi (Lugt 617); Nicolaus Esterházy (without stamp), Hungarian National Picture Gallery (without stamp)

Literature

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 317, no. XXXI

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesítő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 40–101, pp. 90 and 97

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi in der Ungarischen Reichs-Gallerie’, Ungarische Revue 2 (1882), pp. 37–44

Hubert Janitschek, ‘Compte rendu de l’etude de Pulszky’, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft (7) 1884, pp. 230–31

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, p. 612, note 1

Giovanni Morelli [Ivan Lermolieff], Kunstkritische Studien über italienische Malerei: Die Galerien Borghese und Doria Pamfili in Rom, Leipzig 1890, vol. 1, pp. 27, 197, 201 and 300 (Sodoma)

Gustavo Frizzoni, Arte Italiana del Rinascimento, Milan 1891, p. 142 (Sodoma)

Richard Graul, ‘Des Giovan Antonio de’ Bazzi (Sodoma): Vermählung Alexanders mit Roxane’, Die Graphischen Künste 16 (1893), p. 35 (Sodoma)

Richard Forster, ‘Die Hochzeit des Alexander und der Roxane in der Renaissance’, Jahrbuch der Preusischen Kunstsammlungen 15 (1894), pp. 188–89

Joseph Schönbrunner and Joseph Meder, Handzeichnungen Alter Meister aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen, 12 vols., Vienna 1895–1908, no. 505 (Sodoma)

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, no. 297 (Sodoma)

Robert Henry Hobart Cust, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi Hitherto Usually Styled ‘Sodoma’: The Man and the Painter 1477–1549, London 1906, p. 366 (Sodoma)

Sándor Léderer, A Szépművészeti Múzeum milánói mesterei és Leonardo da Vinci, Budapest 1907, pp. 41–43 (Sodoma)

Simon Meller, Külföldi mesterek rajzai XIV–XVIII. század, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1911, no. 104 (Sodoma)

Simon Meller, Az Esterházy-képtár története, Budapest 1915, p. LXII

Edith Hoffmann, ‘Újabb meghatározások a rajzgyűjteményben’, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum Évkönyvei 6 (1929–30), pp. 140–42

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák es olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 40

Edith Hoffmann, Rajzoló eljárások, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1934, no. 81

Edith Hoffmann, Legszebb külföldi rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1936, no. 60

Oskar Fischel, Raphael, 2 vols., London 1948, p. 324

Teréz Gerszi, A múzeum legszebb rajzai, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1956, no. 45

Lajos Vayer, Meisterzeichnungen aus der Sammlung des Museums der Bildenden Künste in Budapest: (14.–18. Jahrhundert), Berlin 1957, no. 25

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 17

Ivan Fenyő, Meisterzeichnungen aus dem Museum der Schönen Künste in Budapest, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1967, no. 7

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiallítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 26

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Abteilung IX, Entwürfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511–12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972, p. 63, note 167

Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exhibition catalogue, Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art 1981, under no. 43, p. 147, note 8

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 285

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 545

Loránd Zentai in Leonardo to Van Gogh: Master Drawings from Budapest, ed. Teréz Gerszi, exhibition catalogue, Washington (DC) National Gallery of Art, Chicago, The Art Institute, and LosAngeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art 1985, no. 7

Richard Harprath, ‘Raffaels Zeichnung Merkur und Psyche: Aus Chatsworth neuerworben für München’, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 48 (1985), p. 412

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael and Pintoricchio, in Beck 1986, pp. 155–72, p. 203

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 162

Aidan Weston-Lewis in Raphael: The Pursuit of Perfection, ed. Timothy Clifford, exhibition catalogue, Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland 1994, under no. 37

David Landau and Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print 1470–1550, New Haven and London 1994, p. 125, notes 88–90

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 9

Loránd Zentai in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle1999, no. 9

Loránd Zentai in Teréz Gerszi (ed.), Dürer to Dalì: Master Drawings in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1999, no. 7

Achim Gnann in Konrad Oberhuber and Achim Gnann: Raphael und der klassische Stil in Rom: 1515–1527, exhibition catalogue, Mantua, Palazzo Tè and Vienna, Albertina 1999, under no. 33

Matthias Haldemann in LINEA: Vom Umriss zur Aktion: Die Kunst der Linie zwischen Antike und Gegenwart, ed. Matthias Haldemann, exhibition catalogue, Zug, Kunsthaus 2010–11, p. 22

Condition

Well preserved paper adhered to a secondary sheet. Smooth and slightly undulated surface. Supplements at upper right and lower left corners as well as centre right and lower left edges. A deep diagonal scratch across right centre. Abraded surface at the abdomen of the figure. A dark stain on the left thigh. An old collector’s stamp scraped out from the lower right corner, painted in darkened lead white.

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


IR reflectograph, transmitted light, UV-induced luminescence