Oldal kiválasztása

Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195

 

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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some details probably retouched with darker brown ink, some repairs in lead white, framed in pen and black ink, on tan paper

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1965); Hungarian National Picture Gallery (Lugt 2000)

Literature

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 36, no. 10

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: His Life and Works, 2 vols., London, 1883–85, vol. 2, p. 120 (copy after the print)

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 152, no. 378 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiállítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 23 (circle of Raphael)

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Abteilung IX, Entwurfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511–12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972, pp. 23–24 (attributed to Raphael)

Edith Pogány-Balás, ‘L’influence des gravures de Mantegna sur la composition de Raphael et de Raimondi le Massacre des Innocents’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 38 (1972), p. 38 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Lawrence Nees in Rome and Venice: Prints of the High Renaissance, ed. Konrad Oberhuber, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), Fogg Art Museum 1974, under no. 12 (attributed to Raphael)

Irena du Bois-Reymond, Die römischen Antikenstiche Marcantonio Raimondis, Munich 1978, p. 126 (copy after the print)

Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exhibition catalogue, Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art 1981, under no. 21 (attributed to Raphael)

Jan Johnson, ‘I chiaroscuri di Ugo da Carpi’, Il conoscitore di stampe 57–58 (1982), pp. 2–87, p. 43–44 (attributed to Raphael)

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under nos. 122, 124 and 125

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 289

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 345 (attributed to Raphael)

Erwin Mitsch, Raphael in der Albertina: Aus Anlaß der 500. Geburtstages des Künstlers, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1983, under no. 19 (attributed to Raphael)

David Rosand, ‘Raphael, Marcantonio, and the Icon of Pathos’, Source: Notes in the History of Art 3 (1984), pp. 34–52, p. 52, note 34 (attributed to Raphael)

Giovanni Morello Raffaello in Vaticano, ed. Fabricio Mancinelli, exhibition catalogue, Vatican, Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 1984–85, under no. 127 (copy after the print)

Francis Ames-Lewis, The Draftsman Raphael, New Haven and London 1986, p. 8

Susan Lambert, The Image Multiplied: Five Centuries of Printed Reproductions of Paintings and Drawings, London 1987, no. 141c (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, ‘Le Massacre des Innocents: Remarques sur les compositions des Raphaël et de Raimondi’, Bulletin du Musee Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 74 (1991), pp. 27–41 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Martin Clayton, Raphael and his Circle: Drawings from Windsor Castle, exhibition catalogue, London, The Queen’s Gallery, Washington (DC), The

National Gallery of Art, Toronto, The Art Gallery of Ontario, and Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum 1999–2001, under no. 20 (after Raphael)

Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina, 4 vols., Vienna 1992–97, p. 107 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 159 (attributed to Raphael)

David Landau and Peter Parshal, The Renaissance Print 1470–1550, New Haven and London 1994, pp. 123–27 (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 8 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Carmen C. Bambach, Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice,1300–1600, Cambridge 1999, p. 310, notes 55 and 56 (attributed to Raphael)

Robert H. Getscher, ‘The Massacre of the Innocents: An Early Work Engraved by Marcantonio’, Artibus et Historiae 39 (1999), pp. 95–111, pp. 106–7 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle 1999, under no. 7 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Corinna Höper, Raffael und die Folgen: Das Kunstwerk in Zeitaltern seiner graphischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Stuttgart 2001, under no. A.8.1 (attributed to Raphael)

Marilena Z. Cassimatis in In the Light of Apollo: Italian Renaissance and Greece, ed. Mina Gregori, exhibition catalogue, 2 vols., Athens, Alexandros Soutzos Museum 2003–4, under no. XI.28 (attributed to Raphael)

Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, New Haven 2004, pp. 118–36 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi or copy after the print)

Hugo Chapman in Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry, and Carol Plazzotta, Raphael: From Urbino to Rome, exhibition catalogue, London, National Gallery 2004, pp. 250–51, note 8 (attributed to Raphael or copy)

Norberto Gramaccini and Hans Jacob Meier, Die Kunst der Interpretation: Italienische Reproduktionsgrafik 1485–1600, Berlin and Munich 2009, under no. 58 (Raphael)

Tania Previdi in Ugo da Carpi: L’ opera incisa. Xilografie e chiaroscuri da Tiziano, Raffaello e Parmigianino, ed. Manuela Rossi, exhibition catalogue, Carpi, Palazzo dei Pio 2009, under no. 23 (Raphael)

Joachim Jacoby in Raphael: Drawings, eds. Joachim Jacoby and Martin Sonnabend, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, Städel Museum 2012–13, under no. 28 (Raphael or copy after the print)

Zoltán Kárpáti in The Prince and the Paper: Masterworks from the Esterházy Collection, exhibition catalogue, Jerusalem, Israel Museum 2011, p. 76, no. 1 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Achim Gnann in Achim Gnann and Michiel C. Plomp, Raphael and his School, exhibition catalogue, Haarlem, Teylers Museum 2012–13, under no. 13 (attributed to Raphael)

Condition

Extremely abraded overall surface, worn and damaged with some stains. Creases towards the bottom. Repaired tears at right and left edges. Small holes towards top. Water stains at lower centre and on the kneeling female figure at front. The severely abraded ink caused loss of details. Some parts probably retouched in a darker tone ink. Infrared reflectograph shows spolvero marks and traces of underdrawing in dry black carbon-based media, probably black chalk or charcoal.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

Watermark: visible

Chain lines: 37/41 (horizontal)

Laid lines: not visible

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


In raking light


Photo montage


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘with fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

Photo montage II


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘without fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

IR reflectograph, raking light, transmitted light, UV-induced luminescence, watermark