Oldal kiválasztása

tech003 (Raphael 2195)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195

 

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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some details probably retouched with darker brown ink, some repairs in lead white, framed in pen and black ink, on tan paper

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1965); Hungarian National Picture Gallery (Lugt 2000)

Literature

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 36, no. 10

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: His Life and Works, 2 vols., London, 1883–85, vol. 2, p. 120 (copy after the print)

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 152, no. 378 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiállítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 23 (circle of Raphael)

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Abteilung IX, Entwurfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511–12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972, pp. 23–24 (attributed to Raphael)

Edith Pogány-Balás, ‘L’influence des gravures de Mantegna sur la composition de Raphael et de Raimondi le Massacre des Innocents’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 38 (1972), p. 38 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Lawrence Nees in Rome and Venice: Prints of the High Renaissance, ed. Konrad Oberhuber, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), Fogg Art Museum 1974, under no. 12 (attributed to Raphael)

Irena du Bois-Reymond, Die römischen Antikenstiche Marcantonio Raimondis, Munich 1978, p. 126 (copy after the print)

Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exhibition catalogue, Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art 1981, under no. 21 (attributed to Raphael)

Jan Johnson, ‘I chiaroscuri di Ugo da Carpi’, Il conoscitore di stampe 57–58 (1982), pp. 2–87, p. 43–44 (attributed to Raphael)

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under nos. 122, 124 and 125

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 289

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 345 (attributed to Raphael)

Erwin Mitsch, Raphael in der Albertina: Aus Anlaß der 500. Geburtstages des Künstlers, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1983, under no. 19 (attributed to Raphael)

David Rosand, ‘Raphael, Marcantonio, and the Icon of Pathos’, Source: Notes in the History of Art 3 (1984), pp. 34–52, p. 52, note 34 (attributed to Raphael)

Giovanni Morello Raffaello in Vaticano, ed. Fabricio Mancinelli, exhibition catalogue, Vatican, Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 1984–85, under no. 127 (copy after the print)

Francis Ames-Lewis, The Draftsman Raphael, New Haven and London 1986, p. 8

Susan Lambert, The Image Multiplied: Five Centuries of Printed Reproductions of Paintings and Drawings, London 1987, no. 141c (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, ‘Le Massacre des Innocents: Remarques sur les compositions des Raphaël et de Raimondi’, Bulletin du Musee Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 74 (1991), pp. 27–41 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Martin Clayton, Raphael and his Circle: Drawings from Windsor Castle, exhibition catalogue, London, The Queen’s Gallery, Washington (DC), The

National Gallery of Art, Toronto, The Art Gallery of Ontario, and Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum 1999–2001, under no. 20 (after Raphael)

Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina, 4 vols., Vienna 1992–97, p. 107 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 159 (attributed to Raphael)

David Landau and Peter Parshal, The Renaissance Print 1470–1550, New Haven and London 1994, pp. 123–27 (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 8 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Carmen C. Bambach, Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice,1300–1600, Cambridge 1999, p. 310, notes 55 and 56 (attributed to Raphael)

Robert H. Getscher, ‘The Massacre of the Innocents: An Early Work Engraved by Marcantonio’, Artibus et Historiae 39 (1999), pp. 95–111, pp. 106–7 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle 1999, under no. 7 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Corinna Höper, Raffael und die Folgen: Das Kunstwerk in Zeitaltern seiner graphischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Stuttgart 2001, under no. A.8.1 (attributed to Raphael)

Marilena Z. Cassimatis in In the Light of Apollo: Italian Renaissance and Greece, ed. Mina Gregori, exhibition catalogue, 2 vols., Athens, Alexandros Soutzos Museum 2003–4, under no. XI.28 (attributed to Raphael)

Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, New Haven 2004, pp. 118–36 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi or copy after the print)

Hugo Chapman in Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry, and Carol Plazzotta, Raphael: From Urbino to Rome, exhibition catalogue, London, National Gallery 2004, pp. 250–51, note 8 (attributed to Raphael or copy)

Norberto Gramaccini and Hans Jacob Meier, Die Kunst der Interpretation: Italienische Reproduktionsgrafik 1485–1600, Berlin and Munich 2009, under no. 58 (Raphael)

Tania Previdi in Ugo da Carpi: L’ opera incisa. Xilografie e chiaroscuri da Tiziano, Raffaello e Parmigianino, ed. Manuela Rossi, exhibition catalogue, Carpi, Palazzo dei Pio 2009, under no. 23 (Raphael)

Joachim Jacoby in Raphael: Drawings, eds. Joachim Jacoby and Martin Sonnabend, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, Städel Museum 2012–13, under no. 28 (Raphael or copy after the print)

Zoltán Kárpáti in The Prince and the Paper: Masterworks from the Esterházy Collection, exhibition catalogue, Jerusalem, Israel Museum 2011, p. 76, no. 1 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Achim Gnann in Achim Gnann and Michiel C. Plomp, Raphael and his School, exhibition catalogue, Haarlem, Teylers Museum 2012–13, under no. 13 (attributed to Raphael)

Condition

Extremely abraded overall surface, worn and damaged with some stains. Creases towards the bottom. Repaired tears at right and left edges. Small holes towards top. Water stains at lower centre and on the kneeling female figure at front. The severely abraded ink caused loss of details. Some parts probably retouched in a darker tone ink. Infrared reflectograph shows spolvero marks and traces of underdrawing in dry black carbon-based media, probably black chalk or charcoal.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

Watermark: visible

Chain lines: 37/41 (horizontal)

Laid lines: not visible

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


In raking light


Photo montage


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘with fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

Photo montage II


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘without fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

tech002 (Raphael 1936)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Nude Studies, probably for Saint Jerome

c. 1504–5
Pen and brown ink
238 × 146 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1936
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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some details probably retouched with darker tone brown ink, on paper

Insciption

Inscribed in pen and brown ink on the recto at lower right: ‘Raf’ on the verso at lower margin: ‘Sto. Raphae’

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1965); Hungarian National Picture Gallery (Lugt 2000 and a stamp not in Lugt)

Literature

Johann David Passavant, Raphaël d’Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, 2 vols., Paris 1860, vol. 2, pp. 417–18, no. 242

Oscar Fischel, Raffaels Zeichnungen, 8 vols., Berlin 1913–41, no. 86

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák es olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 32 (close to Lo Spagana)

Karl T. Parker, Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum: Vol. II: Italian Schools, Oxford 1956, under no. 522

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 19

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiállítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 24

Barbara Mathilde Plemmons, Raphael 1504–1508, PhD dissertation, Los Angeles, University of Carolina 1978, pp. 123–27

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under no. 37

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 86

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 172

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 6

Corinna Höper, Raffael und die Folgen: Das Kunstwerk in Zeitaltern seiner graphischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Stuttgart 2001, under no. A.108

Linda Wolk-Simon, Raphael at the Metropolitan: The Colonna Altarpiece, New York and New Haven 2006, p. 22, no. 15

Zoltán Kárpáti in The Splendour of the Medici, eds. Monica Bietti and Annamaria Giusti, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 2008, no. 96

Condition

Irregular shaped, extremely thin paper adhered to a secondary sheet. Lower right corner is missing. Severely damaged overall surface with many losses, especially at left edge and lower centre. Many loose fragments unsuccessfully repaired, adhesive residue throughout. Creases towards the bottom. Many stains and foxing. An accidental splash of brown ink on the left figure. Some details probably retouched with darker tone brown ink. Image taken in backlighting suggests that the paper was split.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

 

Watermark: fragment, illegible

Chain and laid lines: not measurable

In transmitted light


tech001 (Raphael 1779)

Raph
ael
(1483–1520)

The Assumption of the Virgin

c. 1503–4
Pen and brown ink
158 × 193 mm (arched top)
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1779

 

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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some traces of black chalk or charcoal, a fragmentary motif in red chalk, on tan paper

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy, Hungarian National Picture Gallery (not stamped) (Lugt 1965) 

Literature

Johann David Passavant, Raphaël d’Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, 2 vols., Paris 1860, vol. 1, p. 240

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p.103, no. 4

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesitő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 57–62

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi in der Ungarischen Reichs-Gallerie’, Ungarische Revue 2 (1882), pp. 9–12

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: His Life and Works, 2 vols., London, 1883–85, vol. 1, p. 143

Hubert Janitschek, ‘Compte rendu de l’etude de Pulszky’, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft (7) 1884, pp. 226–31, pp. 227–28

Franz Wickhoff, ‘Über einige Zeichnungen des Pinturicchio’, Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst 1884, p. 59 (Pintoricchio)

Eugène Müntz, ‘Les dessins de la jeunesse de Raphaël’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1885, p. 338 (after Raphael)

Herman Grimm, Das Leben Raphaels, 2nd ed., Berlin 1886, p. 237 (not Raphael)

Wilhelm Koopmann, ‘Compte rendu de l’œuvre de Grimm’, Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 1886, p.264 (Pintoricchio)

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, p. 90, no. 1 (in the manner of Raphael)

Wilhelm Koopmann, ‘Einige weniger bekannte Handzeichnungen Raphaels’, Jahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen 12 (1891), p. 42

Anton Springer, Raffael und Michelangelo, 3rd ed., Leipzig 1895, vol. 1, p. 69

Handzeichnungen Alter Meister aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen, 12 vols., Vienna 1895–1908, no. 683

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 17, no. 32 (Pintoricchio)

Simon Meller, Külföldi mesterek rajzai XIV–XVIII. század, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1911, no. 111 (Pintoricchio)

Oskar Fischel, ‘Die Zeichnungen der Umbrer’, Jahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen 38 (1917), p. 147, no. 141 (attributed to Lo Spagna)

Raimond van Marle, The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, 19 vols., Hague 1923–38, vol. 14, pp. 289 and 466 (Pintoricchio)

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák es olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 15 (Lo Spagna)

Edith Hoffmann, Legszebb külföldi rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1936, no. 53 (Lo Spagna)

Lajos Vayer, Meisterzeichnungen aus der Sammlung des Museums der Bildenden Künste in Budapest: (14.–18. Jahrhundert), Berlin 1957, no. 17 (Lo Spagna)

Teréz Gerszi, A múzeum legszebb rajzai, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1956, no. 37 (Lo Spagna)

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 6 (Lo Spagna)

Loránd Zentai, ‘Contribution à la période ombrienne de Raphaël’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 53 (1979), pp. 69–79 (attributed to Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Disegni umbri del Rinascimento da Perugino a Raffaello, exhibition catalogue, Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi 1982, under no. 63 (after Raphael)

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under no. 20

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 38

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 34 (probably copy)

Pierluigi de Vecchi in Raffaello in Vaticano, ed. Fabricio Mancinelli, exhibition catalogue, Vatican, Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 1984–85, under no. 1 (after Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, ‘Raffaello giovane e gli artisti umbri contemporanei’, Arte cristiana 73 (1985), p. 270, no. 709 (after Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Iconographic Demands and Artistic Achievements: The Genesis of Three Works by Raphael, in Rome 1986, pp. 13–27, pp. 17–18

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, The Early Raphael and His Umbrian Contemporaries, in Beck 1986, pp. 101–2 (Umbrian Artist)

Francis Ames-Lewis, The Draftsman Raphael, New Haven and London 1986, p. 33

Loránd Zentai, ‘Le Massacre des Innocents: Remarques sur les compositions des Raphael et de Raimondi’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 74 (1991), pp. 30–31 (attributed to Raphael)

Börje Magnusson, Rafael: Teckningar, exhibition catalogue, Stockholm, Nationalmuseum 1992, no. 14

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 25, under no. 17 (Anonymous Artist)

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 5 (attributed to Raphael)

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: The Paintings, Munich, London, and New York 1999, p. 25

Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of his Paintings I: The Beginnings in Umbria and Florence ca. 1500–1508, Landshut 2001, p. 130, no. A.I.1 (Anonymous Artist)

Donal Cooper, ‘Raphael’s Altar-Pieces in S. Francesco al Prato, Perugia: Patronage, Settings and Function’, The Burlington Magazine 143 (2001), p. 556, note 51 (Umbrian Artist)

Paul Joannides, Raphael and his Age: Drawings from the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, exhibition catalogue, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art and Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts 2002–3, under no. 20

Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, New Haven 2004, pp. 117–18

Claudia La Malfa, Invenzioni, modelli e copie: Pintoricchio disegnatore e il rapporto con Perugino, la bottega umbra del primo Rinascimento e Raffaello, in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, pp. 347–65, pp. 362–63 (attributed to Raphael)

Tom Henry, Perugia 1502, in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, pp. 125–28 (Raphael or copy)

Tom Henry in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, no. 24 (Raphael or copy)

Condition

Trimmed paper with arched top. Extremely abraded and damaged overall surface. A vertical crease across centre caused by the folding of the sheet. Slightly damaged edges with losses and tears. A significant tear at lower centre and minor ones at the sides. Two holes at lower right. Drastically abraded and extremely faint ink. Accidental small spots of paint in red and black, and small black stains all over the surface. Infrared reflectograph shows some traces of underdrawing in dry black carbon-based media, probably black chalk or charcoal on the upper part of the central figure.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

Watermark: fragment

Chain lines: 35/38 mm (vertical)

Laid lines: 1 mm (horizontal)

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


In raking light