Oldal kiválasztása

cat040 (Raphael 71)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Esterházy Madonna

c. 1507–8
Tempera and oil, on panel
28.5 × 21.5 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 71

 

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The Esterházy Madonna belongs to the small devotional pictures of the Virgin and Child that have been in great demand in Florence from the fifteenth century. It is one of a group of Leonardo-inspired pyramidal compositions dating from the end of Raphael’s Florentine sojourn. His approach to Leonardo’s models was reflective: he integrated the figures in a spacious landscape and created a compact and clear, lively ensemble by the interlocked forms and gestures. The classical ruins included in the background suggest that the painting was completed after Raphael’s move to Rome.
The small picture, executed on a very thin, therefore heavily wrapped panel, is partly unfinished. Its most transparent layers make the painting’s extensive underdrawing clearly visible. While work on the landscape and draperies had progressed quite far, the flesh tones are not completely modelled. Raphael sketched the fresh and confident underdrawing directly on the ground, possibly with silverpoint.
The painting originates from the famous collection of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy (1765–1833). A note once attached to the back of the panel, today lost, stated that the painting was presented to Empress Elizabeth Christine (1691–1750) by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721).

tech007 (Raphael 71)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Esterházy Madonna

c. 1507–8
Tempera and oil
28.5 cm × 21.5 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 71

 

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Technique

Tempera and oil, on poplar panel

Provenance

Pope Clement XI, Rome (before 1721); Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel-Bevern, Vienna; Wenzel Anton Eusebius von Kaunitz, Vienna; Nicolaus Esterházy; Hungarian National Picture Gallery

Literature

Joseph Fischer, Catalog der Gemählde-Gallerie des durchlauchtigen Fürsten Esterházy von Galantha, zu Laxenburg bei Wien, Vienna 1812, no. VI:11

Georg Christian Braun, Raphael’s Leben und Werke, Wiesbaden 1815, p. 108 (2nd ed. 1819, p. 108)

Joseph Fischer and Anton Rothmüller, Inventarium No. 10 der fürstlich Esterházyschen Gemählde, Vienna 1820, no. 45

Friedrich Rehberg, Rafael Sanzio aus Urbino, Munich 1824, p. 35

Antoine Chrysostôme Quatremère de Quincy, Istoria della vita e delle opere di Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino.Voltata in Italiano, corretta, illustrata ed ampliata per cura di Francesco Longhena, Milan 1829, pp. 176–78

Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Paul Esterhazy von Galantha in Wien (Vorstadt Mariahilf Nr. 40)/Catalogue de la Galerie des Tableaux de Son Altesse le Prince Paul Esterhazy de Galantha à Vienne (Fauxbourg Mariahilf No. 40), Vienna 1835, pp. 60–61, no. 27

Georg Kaspar Nagler, Rafael als Mensch und Künstler, Munich 1836, pp. 135, 345 and 363

Catalogue de la Galerie des Tableaux de Son Altesse le Prince Paul Esterhazy de Galantha a Vienne/Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Paul Eszterhazy von Galantha in Wien, Vienna 1844, pp. 48–49, no. 58

Georg Kaspar Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, oder Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Werken der Maler, Bildhauer, Baumeister, Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen, Zeichner, Medailleure, Elfenbeinarbeiter, etc., 25 vols., Munich 1835–1914, 1845, p. 319

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Zsigmond Ormós, A herczeg Esterházy képtár műtörténelmi leírása, Pest 1864, pp. 124–25, no. XI:58

Műsorozata a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia palotájában elhelyezett Esterházy herczegi keptárnak, Pest 1865, p. 22, no. 68

János Peregriny, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum állagai I, Budapest 1909, pp. 3–40, no. XI: 68

Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Nicolaus Eszterházy von Galantha in Pest, Academie-Gebäude, Pest 1869, p. 25, no. 68

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Wilhelm Lübke, Rafael-Werk: Sämmtliche Tafelbilde und Fresken des Meisters in Nachbildungen nach Kupferstichen und Photographien, 5 vols., Dresden 1875, vol. 1, p. 24; vol. 3, pp. 35 and 102

Catalog der Landes-Gemälde-Gallerie in Academie-Gebäude, Budapest 1876, p. 10, no. 180

Carl von Lützow, ‘Korrespondenz’, Kunst-Chronik 11 (1876), pp. 6–10, pp. 6–10

Anton Springer, Raffael und Michelangelo, Leipzig 1878, p. 85 (2nd ed. 1983, vol. 1, pp. 110–11)

Az Országos Képtár képeinek jegyzéke az Akadémia épületében, Budapest 1878, p. 10, no. 180

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, pp. 221 and 223–24

Károly Pulszky, A Magyar Országos Képtár ideiglenes lajstroma, Budapest 1881, p. 10, no. 54

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesitő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 40–101, pp. 72–75

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: his Life and Works: With Particular Reference to Recently Discovered Records, and an Exhaustive Study of Extant Drawings and Pictures, 2 vols., vol. 1, pp. 365–69[remélem ez ez]

Hugo von Tschudi and Károly Pulszky, Landes-Gemälde-Galerie in Budapest vormals Esterházy–Galerie. Italienische und spanische Meister, Deutsche,niederländische und französischeMeister, Vienna 1883, p. 23

Marco Minghetti, Raffaello, Bologna 1885, pp. 88–89

Károly Pulszky, Országos Képtár I: A Képgyűjtemény leíró lajstroma, Budapest 1888, p. 10, no. 71

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Theodor von Frimmel, Kleine Galeriestudien I. Einleitung, die gräflich Schönborn’sche Galerie auf Schloss Weissenstein bei Pommersfelden, Gemäldesammlungen im Bamberg, die Galerie zu

Wiesbaden, die Gräflich Nostitz’sche Galerie im Prag, Galerien in Pest, wie die alten Gemälde wander, Bamberg 1892, pp. 145 and 217–18

Károly Karl [Charles, Frank Tryon], Raphael’s Madonnas and Other Great Pictures Reproduced from the Original Paintings, with a Life of Raphael and an Account of his Chief Works, London 1894, p. 96, no. 22

Az Országos Képtár műtárgyainak leíró lajstroma hivatkozással a korábbi katalógusokra, Budapest 1897, p. 32, no. 71

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 33

Hermann Knackfus, Raffael, 2nd ed., Bielefeld and Lepizig 1895, pp. 30 and 35

Bernard Berenson, The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, New York and London 1897, p. 172 (2nd ed. 1911, p. 232)

Adolfo Venturi, ‘I quadri di scuola italiana nella Galleria Nazionale di Budapest’, L’Arte 3 (1900), pp. 185–40, pp. 230 and 238

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Theodor von Frimmel, Handbuch der Gemäldekunde, 2nd ed., Leipzig 1904, pp. 52–57

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Gábor Térey, A Szépművészeti Múzeum Régi Képtárának leíró lajstroma, Budapest 1906, p. 25, no. 53

Adolf Rosenberg, Raffael, des meisters Gemälde, Stuttgart and Leipzig 1904, pp. 37, 144 and 147

József Wollanka, Raffael, Budapest 1906, pp. 62–64

János Peregriny, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum állagai I, Budapest 1909, pp. 56–57

Adolf Paul Oppé, Raphael, London 1909, pp. 78–80, 134, 136, 137, 174 and 220

John Charles Van Dyke, Vienna, Budapest: Critical Notes on the Imperial Gallery and Budapest Museum, New York 1914, pp. 147–48

Gabriel von Térey, Die Gemäldegalerie des Museums fur Bildende Künste in Budapest: Vollständiger beschreibender Katalog I. Abteilung: Byzantinische, Italienische, Spanische, Portugisischeund Französische Meister, Berlin 1916, pp. 111–12

Gábor Térey,Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum Régi Képtárának katalógusa, 4th ed., Budapest 1918, p. 192, no. 53

Adolf Rosenberg and Georg Gronau, Raffael, des meisters Gemälde, 4th ed., Stuttgart and Leipzig 1923, no. 39

Wilhelm Suida, ‘Leonardo da Vinci und seine Schule in Mailand’, Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft 13 (1920), pp. 251–97, p. 288

Adolfo Venturi, Raffaello, Rome 1920, p. 143

Gabriel Térey, Catalogue of the Paintings by Old Masters, Budapest 1924, p. 72

Adolfo Venturi, Storia dell’ arte Italiana IX: La Pittura del Cinquecento, Milan 1926, vol. 2, pp. 168–73

Edith Tömöry, ‘Az Esterházy Madonna előkészítő vázlatának egy másolata’, Archaeológiai Értesítő 43 (1929), pp. 272–73, pp. 272–73

Lord Balniel and Kenneth Clark (eds.), A Commemorative Catalogue of the Exhibition of Italian Art Held in the Galleries of the Royal Academy, Burlington House, London, exhibition catalogue,London 1931, pp. 134 and 233

Carlo Gamba, Raphaël, Paris 1932, p. 54

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Oskar Fischel, Raffaelo Santi, in Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler, vol. 29, Leipzig 1935, pp. 433–46, pp. 433–46

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Giuseppe Delogu, ‘Arte italiana in Ungheria’, Emporium 83 (1936), pp. 171–86, p. 179

Andor Pigler, Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum: A Régi Képtár katalógusa, Budapest 1937, vol. 1, pp. 211–12, no. 71

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Oskar Fischel, Raphael, 2 vols., London 1948, pp. 66, 126 and 359

Kenneth Clark, Leonardo da Vinci: An Account of His Development as an Artist, 2nd ed., Cambridge 1952, pp. 22–23

Roberto Longhi, ‘Percorso di Raffaello giovine’, Paragone 65 (1955), pp. 8–23, p. 22, no. 65

Andor Pigler, Országos Szépművészeti Múzeum: A Régi Képtár katalógusa, Budapest 1954, pp. 466–67

Ettore Camesasca, Tutta la pittura di Raffaello: I Quadri, Milan 1956, vol. 1, p. 45

Klára Garas, Meisterwerke der alten Malerei im Museum der bildenden Künste Budapest, Leipzig 1960, p. 13

Sydney J. Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, Cambridge (MA) 1961, p. 486

Richard Turner, ‘Two Landscapes in Renaissance Rome’, The Art Bulletin 43 (1961), pp. 275–87, p. 279

Oskar Fischel, Raphael, Berlin 1962, p. 94

Luitpold Dussler, Raffael: Kritisches Verzeichnis der Gemälde, Wandbilder und Bildteppiche, Munich 1966, p. 22

Luitpold Dussler, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of His Pictures, Wall-Paintings and Tapestries, London 1971, p. 21

Pierluigi de Vecchi, L’opera completa di Raffaello, Milan 1966, p. 99, no. 81

Richard Turner, The Vision of Landscape in Renaissance Italy, Princeton 1966, p. 153

Andor Pigler, Katalog der Galerie Alter Meister Budapest, Budapest 1967, pp. 567–68

Luisa Becherucci, Raffaello e la pittura, in Salmi 1968, vol. 1, pp. 76 and 79

Anna Forlani Tempesti, I disegni, in Salmi 1968, vol. 2, pp. 344 and 422

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John Shearman, ‘Raphael, Rome, and the Codex Escurialensis’, Master Drawings 15 (1977), pp. 107–46, pp. 128 and 134

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Wilhelm Kelber, Raphael von Urbino: Leben und Werk, Stuttgart 1979, p. 434, no. 70

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Klára Garas, ‘Sammlungsgeschichtliche Beiträge zu Raffael: Raffael-Werke in Budapest’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 60–61 (1983), pp. 41–81, pp. 41–53

Hubertus von Sonnenburg, Raphael in der Alten Pinakothek: Geschichte und Wiederherstellung des ersten Raphael-Gemäldes in Deutschland und der von König Ludwig I. erworbenenMadonnenbilder, Munich 1983, pp. 69–71

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Axel Vécsey in The Splendour of the Medici, eds. Monica Bietti and Annamaria Giusti, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 2008, no. 93

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David Ekserdjian in Treasures from Budapest: European Masterpieces from Leonardo to Schiele, ed. David Ekserdjian, exhibition catalogue, London, Royal Academy of Arts 20, no. 23

Axel Vécsey in Le naissance du Musée les Esterházy Collectionneurs, eds. Marc Restellini and Orsolya Radványi, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Pinacothèque de Paris 2011, no. 1[/su_spoiler]

[su_spoiler title=”Condition” icon=”folder-2″]A single piece of poplar panel thinned to an average thickness of 5 mm, which caused a convex warping and intensive curvature. The lateral edges have preserved their unpainted borders, and the upper and lower edges were cut to a slight extent. The panel was prepared with layers of gesso, then slightly smoothened and polished. Support damaged at lower corners and split vertically at centre. Painted layers are well preserved, containing pure, high quality pigments bound partly in walnut oil and partly in egg tempera. Some minor retouches discoloured at certain areas. Thinly applied and transparent dammar resin. The panel was comprehensively restored by Miklós Móré in 1984. A detailed on-line presentation on the restoration is available on-line.

Infrared reflectograph in greyscale


Ultraviolet-reflected image


The back side in ultraviolet-induced luminescence


Photo montage


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured drawing (Uffizi, Florence 539E) superimposed on the infrared reflectograph of the Esterházy Madonna