Oldal kiválasztása

cat059 (Raimondi 5585)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

Lucretia

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 205 × 129 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5585
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The engraving dating from Marcantonio Raimondi’s early Roman years follows a lost drawing by Raphael after an antique sculpture. Lucretia is thought to be the print to inspire the painter to provide Marcantonio with drawings to engrave. The figure of classical proportions and perfect contrapposto is completely removed from a narrative context. Marcantonio borrowed the landscape from a print by Lucas van Leyden.

cat057 (Raimondi 5517)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Martyrdom of Saint Cecilia

c. 1520−25
Engraving, 238 × 405 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5517
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The engraving is related to the fresco, already destroyed, designed by Raphael and executed by his workshop in 1517–1519 in the chapel of Villa Magliana, a papal retreat outside of Rome. The scene combines the martyrdom of Saint Cecilia, boiled in a cauldron of oil, with the beheading of her husband and brother-in-law.

cat054 (Raimondi 5595)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

Quos Ego

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 430 × 330 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5595
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The ambitious print combining the features of Roman reliefs and illusionistic wall paintings embodies the perfect all’antica style. Its arrangement follows an antique relief type in which a central narrative panel is surrounded by several small subsidiary scenes. The print’s title quotes Virgil’s Aeneid, and its central scene represents the sea god Neptun calming the tempest raised by Aeolus against Aeneas’ fleet.

cat053 (Master of the Die 46052)


Master of the Die
(fl c. 1530–60)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Putti Playing

1532
Engraving, 187 × 285 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 46052
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The Roman engraver of the generation after Marcantonio Raimondi, named after his typical signature as Master of the Die, reproduced the tapestries intended for the walls of the Sala di Costantino in a set of four prints. The print with putti playing in a wood did not belong to his original series, but is also related to a design for the tapestries.

cat052 (Vincidor 2266)


Tommaso Vincidor
(?–1534)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Playing Putti

c. 1520
Pen and wash in brown ink, black chalk, heightened
213 × 288 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2266

 

 

Raphael’s assistant, Tommaso Vincidor was involved in the painting of the frescoes of the Vatican Logge. For the decoration of the walls of the Sala di Costantino, a tapestry series was commissioned by Pope Leo X. Based on the cartoons executed after designs by Giovanni da Udine, their weaving in Brussels was supervised by Vincidor from 1520. The putti of the playful scenes, surrounded by animals and festoons of flowers and fruit, derive from Raphael.

cat051 (Fantuzzi 5901)


Antonio Fantuzzi
(fl 1537−50)
Probably After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

1540s
Etching, 261 × 328 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5901
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During their only several years’ activity, etchers at the Fontainebleau court of Francis I created the first significant group of French Renaissance prints. The present etching may be connected with Antonio Fantuzzi on the basis of its specific manner. Relying on an early version of Raphael’s design, preserved in a drawing at the Albertina, Vienna, its composition is dominated by the foreground figures, while the main scene is placed in the background. The addition of the landscape and the remote townscape may have been the printmaker’s own invention.

cat050 (Schiavone 6308)


Andrea Schiavone
(c. 1510−1563)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

c. 1548−52
Etching, 191 × 271 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6308
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The Venetian painter and etcher, Andrea Schiavone got acquainted with Raphael’s composition most probably through the chiaroscuro woodcut by Ugo da Carpi. Schiavone’s painterly etchings, characterised by their soft surface and rich gradations of tone, were created with an innovative application of the technique. As in many other instances, he had no intention to imitate his model faithfully: Schiavone not only remodelled the figures and the landscape, but by placing the background mountains to the other side, he altered the arrangement of the original composition.

cat049 (Carpi 6136)


Ugo da Carpi
(fl c. 1502−32)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

c. 1527−30
Chiaroscuro woodcut
231 × 345 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6136
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In 1515 Raphael was commissioned by Pope Leo X to design a series of tapestries to be hung on the walls of the Sistine Chapel, representing the acts of Saints Peter and Paul. For the tapestries to be executed far from Rome, at the Brussels workshop of the weaver Pieter van Aelst, Raphael and his assistants prepared full-size cartoons. The colour woodcut, imitating the effect of brush drawings, closely follows a study by Raphael in the Royal Collection, Windsor.

cat048 (Franco 7043)


Giovanni Battista Franco
(?1510−1561)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Sts Peter and John Healing a Lame Man

mid-1540s
Etching and engraving, 272 × 406 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 7043
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Two decades after the publication of Parmigianino’s print, Raphael’s tapestry composition was also reproduced by Giovanni Battista Franco. Instead of the cartoon or Parmigianino’s print, the Venetian artist worked on the basis of Raphael’s early compositional study, today lost, in which the twisted right column was represented as a plain one.

cat047 (Parmigianino 6286)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Sts Peter and John Healing a Lame Man

c. 1524−30
Etching and chiaroscuro woodcut, 268 × 401 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6286
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Despite the technical novelties, this is Parmigianino’s most conservative composition, inspired by one of Raphael’s drawings for the tapestries intended for the Sistine Chapel. By the unusual combination of etching and woodcut, Parmigianino evoked the effects of washed pen drawings. The etching was executed by Parmigianino himself, but the cutting of the woodblocks required a skilled craftsman.

cat045 (Raimondi 5786)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Plague (The Morbetto)

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 198 × 253 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5786
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Only four cases are known when Raphael drew with the specific intention that the design would be engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi. The Morbetto was the first occasion when instead of pen, he elaborated the composition in a tonal drawing for the engraver (Florence, Uffizi), who masterfully transferred the light and shade effects of the drawing onto the plate. Its title meaning ‘little plague’ refers to the small size of the print, whose theme derives from the Aeneid.

cat040 (Raphael 71)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Esterházy Madonna

c. 1507–8
Tempera and oil, on panel
28.5 × 21.5 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 71

 

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The Esterházy Madonna belongs to the small devotional pictures of the Virgin and Child that have been in great demand in Florence from the fifteenth century. It is one of a group of Leonardo-inspired pyramidal compositions dating from the end of Raphael’s Florentine sojourn. His approach to Leonardo’s models was reflective: he integrated the figures in a spacious landscape and created a compact and clear, lively ensemble by the interlocked forms and gestures. The classical ruins included in the background suggest that the painting was completed after Raphael’s move to Rome.
The small picture, executed on a very thin, therefore heavily wrapped panel, is partly unfinished. Its most transparent layers make the painting’s extensive underdrawing clearly visible. While work on the landscape and draperies had progressed quite far, the flesh tones are not completely modelled. Raphael sketched the fresh and confident underdrawing directly on the ground, possibly with silverpoint.
The painting originates from the famous collection of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy (1765–1833). A note once attached to the back of the panel, today lost, stated that the painting was presented to Empress Elizabeth Christine (1691–1750) by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721).

cat038 (Raphael 1943)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Head of an Angel

c. 1519–20
Black chalk
308 × 254 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1943

 

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The decorative scheme of the Sala di Costantino, the great papal audience hall in the Vatican Palace, was conceived by Raphael, but was painted by his two principal colleagues, Giovanni Francesco Penni and Giulio Romano. The chalk drawing elaborates the head of an angel accompanying an enthroned pope, but was never executed in this form. Possibly intended as a cartoon, a full-size drawing for the transfer of contours onto the wall, it was not employed in the end. After Raphael’s death, Giulio repeated the angel’s head of the Budapest drawing in unaltered form on his cartoon for The Stoning of Saint Stephen altarpiece for the church of Santo Stefano in Genoa.

cat028 (Raimondi 5616)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

Pan and the Infant Bacchus

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 125 × 92 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5616
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It was probably Marcantonio Raimondi who devised the composition from several models. The awkward conjunction of the two figures, at the areas where they overlap, is characteristic of the engraver’s composite works. A telling example of moral purism of later centuries is that the detail regarded as scandalous was scraped out from the sheet.

cat023 (Raimondi 5516)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Judgement of Paris

c. 1518−20
Engraving, 292 × 435 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5516
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The composition was adapted from two ancient Roman sarcophagi that Raphael altered in the spirit of his mature classical style. Similarly to the working method he applied for his late commissions for paintings, Raphael may have delegated the creation of preparatory drawings for prints to his assistants. The preliminary drawing for The Judgement of Paris was probably made by workshop members, utilizing Raphael’s earlier Budapest Venus.

cat022 (Raphael 1934)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Venus

c. 1511−14
Silverpoint
190 × 75 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1934

 

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The scrupulously executed classical nude, evoking the Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, is usually associated with the frescoes of the Psyche Loggia in the Villa Farnesina, Rome, completed in 1519. However, the drawing may be related to the frescoes only by virtue of its subject: not only its manner is distinct from Raphael’s late drawings, but contrary to the preparatory studies for the Loggia, almost exclusively in red chalk, it was executed in silverpoint. Although the Budapest Venus was not intended in preparation for a print, the figure reappears in an almost identical form in one of the last engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi and Raphael, The Judgement of Paris.

cat015 (Dente 6863)


Marco Dente
(?−1527)
Probably after Raphael
(1483−1520)

Laocoön

c. 1517−19
Engraving, 276 × 392 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6863
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While the figures of the two sons follow the famous antique sculpture, Laocoön, with his arms raised in prayer and knees bent upon the altar, as well as the narrative details derive from a late antique illustrated manuscript, the Vatican Virgil. The codex was accessible for Raphael and his fellow artists, and the composition of Marco Dente’s print was probably designed by the painter.

cat012 (Ghisi 25380)


Giorgio Ghisi
(1520−1582)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The School of Athens

1550
Engraving, 500 × 397 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25380
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Although the Mantuan engraver, Giorgio Ghisi transformed the fresco with an arched top into a rectangular format, he was certainly aware of the finished wall painting. This is proven by the inclusion of the seated figure in the foreground, usually identified as Michelangelo, that Raphael added subsequently to the fresco. The inscription describing the scene as Saint Paul preaching in Athens derives possibly from the publisher, and perhaps encouraged the selling of the print of a complex theological content.

cat011 (Raimondi 25102)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

Parnassus

c. 1517−20
Engraving, 353 × 468 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25102
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Although the Mantuan engraver, Giorgio Ghisi transformed the fresco with an arched top into a rectangular format, he was certainly aware of the finished wall painting. This is proven by the inclusion of the seated figure in the foreground, usually identified as Michelangelo, that Raphael added subsequently to the fresco. The inscription describing the scene as Saint Paul preaching in Athens derives possibly from the publisher, and perhaps encouraged the selling of the print of a complex theological content.

cat009 (Raphael 1935)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Design for a Temporary Decoration (recto)

after 1509
Pen and brown ink

 

 

 


Sketches for the Disputa (verso)

c. 1508–9
Pen and brown ink
200 × 153 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1935

 

 

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The particular purpose of the pen study of the recto side is unknown, but it was possibly produced for a temporary decoration. The inclusion of trophies and Mars suggests a victory celebration, but the putto with the inverted torch rather indicates a funerary context. Raphael borrowed the pose of the main figure and the putto from the famous Antique sculpture, the Apollo Belvedere.
Raphael arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1508 to decorate the Vatican suite of rooms, the so-called Stanze, of Pope Julius II. The fresco of the Disputation of the Holy Sacrament, in the first room called Stanza della Segnatura, represents the Church on earth and in heaven, with the Trinity above an altar. Raphael created more preliminary drawings for this composition than for any other work in his career; no fewer than thirty sheets survived. This sketch for a group of cherubs and an angel of the verso side was drawn for the upper right part of the fresco.

cat006 (Raimondi H.6871)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents (without fir tree)

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 277 × 425 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest H.6871
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The production of the new version of the engraving may have been encouraged by the success of the composition. As the original plate was in the possession of Raphael, the engraver would not have profited from its reprinting. Thus a few years later Marcantonio pirated his own best-selling work.

cat005 (Raimondi 5536)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents (with fir tree)

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 277 × 428 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5536
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The composition belongs to the Florentine tradition of multifigured scenes populated by male nudes, beginning with the Battle of the Nudes by Antonio Pollaiuolo. The  Massacre of the Innocents was the most celebrated and widely reproduced engraving of the period, and established the decade-long, fruitful print publishing collaboration of Raphael and the Bolognese engraver Marcantonio Raimondi. Two versions of the print have survived: the first with a small fir tree in the upper right corner, the second without.

cat004 (Raphael 2195)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195

 

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Carefully detailed and modelled drawings were needed to aid engravers in the execution of prints. The Budapest sheet was intended for this purpose, and embodies the last preparatory stage of Marcantonio Raimondi’s engraving in which Raphael’s contribution was required. Among the half a dozen drawings that survived for the print, the Budapest drawing is the only one in which all figures are found, except the two slain infants in the foreground, and even the parapet of the bridge is included. The painter needed a handling of the pen that was ideally suited to an engraving. In order to guide the printmaker, he concentrated on clarifying the lighting of the intricate multi-figured composition. This aim may lay behind the strictly descriptive manner of the drawing.

cat002 (Raphael 1936)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Nude Studies, probably for Saint Jerome

c. 1504–5
Pen and brown ink
238 × 146 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1936
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Between 1504–1508 Raphael was active mostly in Florence. He executed a whole series of pen drawings of male figures in this period, including the Saint Jerome. As part of a series of saints, it was not made for a certain commission, but as a creative exercise. The Saint Jerome belongs to Raphael’s earliest pen drawings and bears the marks of the initial, failed attempts of the young draughtsman unfamiliar with the new technique. The contrast of the confidently drawn torso and the misconstructed and awkwardly attached left arm suggests that instead of drawing from life, Raphael worked from pattern sheets preserving motifs of various famous artworks.

cat001 (Raphael 1779)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Assumption of the Virgin

c. 1503–4
Pen and brown ink
158 × 193 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1779

 

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The drawing is related to Raphael’s first Perugian altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin (Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana) for the Oddi chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato. The meticulously executed pen drawing was created for the patron for approval and provided an opportunity to request modifications before the painting’s execution. The Assumption of the Virgin originates from the early stage of preparation; Raphael painted the Coronation of the Virgin in the end. The sheet’s poor condition and the vertical crease along its central axis indicates that it was originally folded to a small size and attached to the contract.