Oldal kiválasztása

tech007 (Raphael 71)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Esterházy Madonna

c. 1507–8
Tempera and oil
28.5 cm × 21.5 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 71

 

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Technique

Tempera and oil, on poplar panel

Provenance

Pope Clement XI, Rome (before 1721); Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel-Bevern, Vienna; Wenzel Anton Eusebius von Kaunitz, Vienna; Nicolaus Esterházy; Hungarian National Picture Gallery

Literature

Joseph Fischer, Catalog der Gemählde-Gallerie des durchlauchtigen Fürsten Esterházy von Galantha, zu Laxenburg bei Wien, Vienna 1812, no. VI:11

Georg Christian Braun, Raphael’s Leben und Werke, Wiesbaden 1815, p. 108 (2nd ed. 1819, p. 108)

Joseph Fischer and Anton Rothmüller, Inventarium No. 10 der fürstlich Esterházyschen Gemählde, Vienna 1820, no. 45

Friedrich Rehberg, Rafael Sanzio aus Urbino, Munich 1824, p. 35

Antoine Chrysostôme Quatremère de Quincy, Istoria della vita e delle opere di Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino.Voltata in Italiano, corretta, illustrata ed ampliata per cura di Francesco Longhena, Milan 1829, pp. 176–78

Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Paul Esterhazy von Galantha in Wien (Vorstadt Mariahilf Nr. 40)/Catalogue de la Galerie des Tableaux de Son Altesse le Prince Paul Esterhazy de Galantha à Vienne (Fauxbourg Mariahilf No. 40), Vienna 1835, pp. 60–61, no. 27

Georg Kaspar Nagler, Rafael als Mensch und Künstler, Munich 1836, pp. 135, 345 and 363

Catalogue de la Galerie des Tableaux de Son Altesse le Prince Paul Esterhazy de Galantha a Vienne/Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Paul Eszterhazy von Galantha in Wien, Vienna 1844, pp. 48–49, no. 58

Georg Kaspar Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, oder Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Werken der Maler, Bildhauer, Baumeister, Kupferstecher, Formschneider, Lithographen, Zeichner, Medailleure, Elfenbeinarbeiter, etc., 25 vols., Munich 1835–1914, 1845, p. 319

Louis Viardot, Les musées d’Allemagne: Guide et memento de l’artiste et du voyageur, Paris 1852, p. 241

Charles Clément, Michel-Ange, Léonard de Vinci, Raphaël: Avec une étude sur l’art en Italie avant le XVIe siècle et des catalogues raisonnès historiques et bibliographiques, Paris 1861, p. 390

Zsigmond Ormós, A herczeg Esterházy képtár műtörténelmi leírása, Pest 1864, pp. 124–25, no. XI:58

Műsorozata a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia palotájában elhelyezett Esterházy herczegi keptárnak, Pest 1865, p. 22, no. 68

János Peregriny, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum állagai I, Budapest 1909, pp. 3–40, no. XI: 68

Catalog der Gemälde-Gallerie Seiner Durchlaucht des Fürsten Nicolaus Eszterházy von Galantha in Pest, Academie-Gebäude, Pest 1869, p. 25, no. 68

François-Anatole Gruyer, Les vierges de Raphaël et l’iconographie de la Vierge, 3 vols., Paris 1869, p. 191

A Magyar Akadémia épületében lévő Országos Képtar műsorozata, Pest 1871, p. 22, no. 68

Catalog der Landes-Gemälde-Gallerie in Academie-Gebäude, Pest 1873, p. 22, no. 68

Wilhelm Lübke, Rafael-Werk: Sämmtliche Tafelbilde und Fresken des Meisters in Nachbildungen nach Kupferstichen und Photographien, 5 vols., Dresden 1875, vol. 1, p. 24; vol. 3, pp. 35 and 102

Catalog der Landes-Gemälde-Gallerie in Academie-Gebäude, Budapest 1876, p. 10, no. 180

Carl von Lützow, ‘Korrespondenz’, Kunst-Chronik 11 (1876), pp. 6–10, pp. 6–10

Anton Springer, Raffael und Michelangelo, Leipzig 1878, p. 85 (2nd ed. 1983, vol. 1, pp. 110–11)

Az Országos Képtár képeinek jegyzéke az Akadémia épületében, Budapest 1878, p. 10, no. 180

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, pp. 221 and 223–24

Károly Pulszky, A Magyar Országos Képtár ideiglenes lajstroma, Budapest 1881, p. 10, no. 54

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesitő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 40–101, pp. 72–75

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: his Life and Works: With Particular Reference to Recently Discovered Records, and an Exhaustive Study of Extant Drawings and Pictures, 2 vols., vol. 1, pp. 365–69[remélem ez ez]

Hugo von Tschudi and Károly Pulszky, Landes-Gemälde-Galerie in Budapest vormals Esterházy–Galerie. Italienische und spanische Meister, Deutsche,niederländische und französischeMeister, Vienna 1883, p. 23

Marco Minghetti, Raffaello, Bologna 1885, pp. 88–89

Károly Pulszky, Országos Képtár I: A Képgyűjtemény leíró lajstroma, Budapest 1888, p. 10, no. 71

François-Anatole Gruyer, Voyage autour du salon carré au musée du Louvre, Paris 1891, p. 88

Theodor von Frimmel, Kleine Galeriestudien I. Einleitung, die gräflich Schönborn’sche Galerie auf Schloss Weissenstein bei Pommersfelden, Gemäldesammlungen im Bamberg, die Galerie zu

Wiesbaden, die Gräflich Nostitz’sche Galerie im Prag, Galerien in Pest, wie die alten Gemälde wander, Bamberg 1892, pp. 145 and 217–18

Károly Karl [Charles, Frank Tryon], Raphael’s Madonnas and Other Great Pictures Reproduced from the Original Paintings, with a Life of Raphael and an Account of his Chief Works, London 1894, p. 96, no. 22

Az Országos Képtár műtárgyainak leíró lajstroma hivatkozással a korábbi katalógusokra, Budapest 1897, p. 32, no. 71

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 33

Hermann Knackfus, Raffael, 2nd ed., Bielefeld and Lepizig 1895, pp. 30 and 35

Bernard Berenson, The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance, New York and London 1897, p. 172 (2nd ed. 1911, p. 232)

Adolfo Venturi, ‘I quadri di scuola italiana nella Galleria Nazionale di Budapest’, L’Arte 3 (1900), pp. 185–40, pp. 230 and 238

Henry Strachey, Raphael, London 1900, pp. 119 and 141

Theodor von Frimmel, Handbuch der Gemäldekunde, 2nd ed., Leipzig 1904, pp. 52–57

Edgcumbe Staley, Raphael, London 1904, p. 36

Alfred Robert Dryhurst, Raphael, London 1905, pp. 43–44

Gábor Térey, A Szépművészeti Múzeum Régi Képtárának leíró lajstroma, Budapest 1906, p. 25, no. 53

Adolf Rosenberg, Raffael, des meisters Gemälde, Stuttgart and Leipzig 1904, pp. 37, 144 and 147

József Wollanka, Raffael, Budapest 1906, pp. 62–64

János Peregriny, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum állagai I, Budapest 1909, pp. 56–57

Adolf Paul Oppé, Raphael, London 1909, pp. 78–80, 134, 136, 137, 174 and 220

John Charles Van Dyke, Vienna, Budapest: Critical Notes on the Imperial Gallery and Budapest Museum, New York 1914, pp. 147–48

Gabriel von Térey, Die Gemäldegalerie des Museums fur Bildende Künste in Budapest: Vollständiger beschreibender Katalog I. Abteilung: Byzantinische, Italienische, Spanische, Portugisischeund Französische Meister, Berlin 1916, pp. 111–12

Gábor Térey,Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum Régi Képtárának katalógusa, 4th ed., Budapest 1918, p. 192, no. 53

Adolf Rosenberg and Georg Gronau, Raffael, des meisters Gemälde, 4th ed., Stuttgart and Leipzig 1923, no. 39

Wilhelm Suida, ‘Leonardo da Vinci und seine Schule in Mailand’, Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft 13 (1920), pp. 251–97, p. 288

Adolfo Venturi, Raffaello, Rome 1920, p. 143

Gabriel Térey, Catalogue of the Paintings by Old Masters, Budapest 1924, p. 72

Adolfo Venturi, Storia dell’ arte Italiana IX: La Pittura del Cinquecento, Milan 1926, vol. 2, pp. 168–73

Edith Tömöry, ‘Az Esterházy Madonna előkészítő vázlatának egy másolata’, Archaeológiai Értesítő 43 (1929), pp. 272–73, pp. 272–73

Lord Balniel and Kenneth Clark (eds.), A Commemorative Catalogue of the Exhibition of Italian Art Held in the Galleries of the Royal Academy, Burlington House, London, exhibition catalogue,London 1931, pp. 134 and 233

Carlo Gamba, Raphaël, Paris 1932, p. 54

Bernard Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance, Oxford 1932, p. 479

Oskar Fischel, Raffaelo Santi, in Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler, vol. 29, Leipzig 1935, pp. 433–46, pp. 433–46

Bernard Berenson, Pitture italiane del Rinascimento, Milan 1936, p. 412

Giuseppe Delogu, ‘Arte italiana in Ungheria’, Emporium 83 (1936), pp. 171–86, p. 179

Andor Pigler, Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum: A Régi Képtár katalógusa, Budapest 1937, vol. 1, pp. 211–12, no. 71

Sergio Ortolani, Raffaello, 2nd ed., Bergamo 1945, p. 31

Oskar Fischel, Raphael, 2 vols., London 1948, pp. 66, 126 and 359

Kenneth Clark, Leonardo da Vinci: An Account of His Development as an Artist, 2nd ed., Cambridge 1952, pp. 22–23

Roberto Longhi, ‘Percorso di Raffaello giovine’, Paragone 65 (1955), pp. 8–23, p. 22, no. 65

Andor Pigler, Országos Szépművészeti Múzeum: A Régi Képtár katalógusa, Budapest 1954, pp. 466–67

Ettore Camesasca, Tutta la pittura di Raffaello: I Quadri, Milan 1956, vol. 1, p. 45

Klára Garas, Meisterwerke der alten Malerei im Museum der bildenden Künste Budapest, Leipzig 1960, p. 13

Sydney J. Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, Cambridge (MA) 1961, p. 486

Richard Turner, ‘Two Landscapes in Renaissance Rome’, The Art Bulletin 43 (1961), pp. 275–87, p. 279

Oskar Fischel, Raphael, Berlin 1962, p. 94

Luitpold Dussler, Raffael: Kritisches Verzeichnis der Gemälde, Wandbilder und Bildteppiche, Munich 1966, p. 22

Luitpold Dussler, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of His Pictures, Wall-Paintings and Tapestries, London 1971, p. 21

Pierluigi de Vecchi, L’opera completa di Raffaello, Milan 1966, p. 99, no. 81

Richard Turner, The Vision of Landscape in Renaissance Italy, Princeton 1966, p. 153

Andor Pigler, Katalog der Galerie Alter Meister Budapest, Budapest 1967, pp. 567–68

Luisa Becherucci, Raffaello e la pittura, in Salmi 1968, vol. 1, pp. 76 and 79

Anna Forlani Tempesti, I disegni, in Salmi 1968, vol. 2, pp. 344 and 422

Ferdinando Castagnoli, Raffaello e le antichità di Roma, in Salmi 1968, vol. 2, pp. 578 and 581

Bernard Berenson, Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: A List of the Principal Artists and Their Works with an Index of Places: Central Italian and North Italian Schools, 3 vols., London1957–68, vol. 3, p. 351

John Pope-Hennessy, Raphael, London 1971, pp. 17, 202, 204 and 287, note 51

John Shearman, Raphael’s Cartoons in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen and the Tapestries for the Sistine Chapel, London 1972, p. 51, note 43

John Shearman, ‘Raphael, Rome, and the Codex Escurialensis’, Master Drawings 15 (1977), pp. 107–46, pp. 128 and 134

Barbara Mathilde Plemmons, Raphael 1504–1508, PhD dissertation, Los Angeles, University of Carolina 1978, pp. 66 and 71

Selma Holo, ‘A Note on the Afterlife of the Crouching Aphrodite in the Renaissance’, J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 6 (1978–79), pp. 23–36, pp. 30–32

Wilhelm Kelber, Raphael von Urbino: Leben und Werk, Stuttgart 1979, p. 434, no. 70

Stefano Ray, ‘Raffaello; ambiente e città: Dai documenti iconografici e dagli scritti 2’, Storia della città 10 (1979), pp. 65–74, pp. 65–74

Konrad Oberhuber, Raffaello, Milan 1982, p. 189, no. 62

Klára Garas, ‘Sammlungsgeschichtliche Beiträge zu Raffael: Raffael-Werke in Budapest’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 60–61 (1983), pp. 41–81, pp. 41–53

Hubertus von Sonnenburg, Raphael in der Alten Pinakothek: Geschichte und Wiederherstellung des ersten Raphael-Gemäldes in Deutschland und der von König Ludwig I. erworbenenMadonnenbilder, Munich 1983, pp. 69–71

Vilmos Tátrai, Cinquecento Paintings of Central Italy, Budapest 1983, nos. 4 and 5

Ernst Ullmann, Raffaello, Leipzig 1983, pp. 56 and 59–60

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden in Raffaello a Firenze: Dipinti e disegni delle collezioni fiorentine, ed. Mina Gregori, exhibition catalogue, Florence, Palazzo Pitti 1984, no. 44

Miklós Móré, ‘Remarques sur l’état anterieur des tableaux voles et recuperes de Raffaello Santi et de Jacopo Tintoretto: Compte-rendu de la restauration des degats causes par ce vol’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 68–69 (1987), pp. 103–17

Andrea Bacchi et al., La pittura del Cinquecento a Roma e nel Lazio I: Da Giulio II al Sacco di Roma, in Giuliano Briganti (ed.), La pittura in Italia: Il Cinquecento, Milan 1988, vol. 2, p. 411

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden and Maria Antonietta Zancan, Raffaello. Catalogo completo dei dipinti, Florence 1989, no. 50

Carlo Pedretti, Raphael: His Life and Work in the Splendors of the Italian Renaissance, Florence 1989, p. 29

Wolfgang Prohaska, The Restoration and Scientific Examination of Raphael’s Madonna in the Meadow, in Shearman and Hall 1990, pp. 57–64, p. 63

Hubertus von Sonnenburg, The Examination of Raphael’s Paintings in Munich, in Shearman and Hall 1990, pp. 65–78, pp. 65 and 71–72

Vilmos Tátrai, Museum of Fine Arts Budapest: Old Masters’ Gallery: A Summary Catalogue of Italian, French, Spanish and Greek Paintings, eds. Ildikó Ember and Imre Takács, London andBudapest, 1991, p. 100

European Landscapes from Raphael to Pissarro, ed. Ildikó Ember, exhibition catalogue, Shinjuku, Mitsukoshi Museum of Art 1992–93, no. 1

Michael Hirst and Jill Dunkerton, The Young Michelangelo: The Artist in Rome 1496–1501, exhibition catalogue, London, The National Gallery 1994, p. 113

Pierluigi de Vecchi, Raffaello: La mimesi, l’armonia e l’invenzione, Florence 1995, p. 219, no. 47

Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Raphael in Florence, London 1996, pp. 204–5

Jarl Kremeier, ‘Raffaels Madonna Esterházy Beobachtungen zu Komposition und Datierung’, Belvedere 4 (1998), pp. 36–47

Garas Klára in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle 1999, pp. 82–90

Rudolf Hiller von Gaertringen in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle 1999, no. 1

Rudolf Hiller von Gaertringen, Raffaels Lernerfahrungen in der Werkstatt Peruginos: Kartonverwendung und Motivübernahme im Wandel, Munich and Berlin 1999, p. 366, no. 70

Vernon Hyde Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and Culture, New York 1999, p. 266

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: The Paintings, Munich, London, and New York 1999, p. 251, no. 67

Christoph Wagner, Farbe und Metapher: Die Entstehung einer neuzeitlichen Bildmetaphorik in der vorrömischen Malerei Raphaels, Berlin 1999, pp. 154, 157, 215, 218, 228, 317, 324 and 327

Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of his Paintings I: The Beginnings in Umbria and Florence ca. 1500–1508, Landshut 2001, no. 34

Pierluigi de Vecchi, Raphael, Paris 2002, p. 98

Vilmos Tátrai in Italian Old Masters from Raphael to Tiepolo: The Collection of the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts, exhibition catalogue, Montreal, Museum of Fine Arts 2002, p. 39, no. 9

Serena Padovani, ‘I ritratti Doni: Raffaello e il suo eccentrico amico, il Maestro di Serumido’, Paragone 56–61 (2005), pp. 3–26, pp. 12–13

Jürg Meyer zur Capellen in Raffaello da Firenze a Roma, ed. Anna Coliva, exhibition catalogue, Rome, Galleria Borghese 2006, no. 38

Hans Rottenhammer–begehrt–ergessen–neu entdeckt, ed. Heiner Borggrefe, exhibition catalogue, Lemgo, Weserrenaissance-Museum Schloss Brake and Prague, Nationalgalerie 2008, pp. 99–100

Axel Vécsey in The Splendour of the Medici, eds. Monica Bietti and Annamaria Giusti, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 2008, no. 93

Meyer zur Capellen in Botticelli to Titian: Two Centuries of Italian Masterpieces, eds. Dóra Sallay, Vilmos Tátrai, and Axel Vécsey, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 2009, no. 68

David Ekserdjian in Treasures from Budapest: European Masterpieces from Leonardo to Schiele, ed. David Ekserdjian, exhibition catalogue, London, Royal Academy of Arts 20, no. 23

Axel Vécsey in Le naissance du Musée les Esterházy Collectionneurs, eds. Marc Restellini and Orsolya Radványi, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Pinacothèque de Paris 2011, no. 1[/su_spoiler]

[su_spoiler title=”Condition” icon=”folder-2″]A single piece of poplar panel thinned to an average thickness of 5 mm, which caused a convex warping and intensive curvature. The lateral edges have preserved their unpainted borders, and the upper and lower edges were cut to a slight extent. The panel was prepared with layers of gesso, then slightly smoothened and polished. Support damaged at lower corners and split vertically at centre. Painted layers are well preserved, containing pure, high quality pigments bound partly in walnut oil and partly in egg tempera. Some minor retouches discoloured at certain areas. Thinly applied and transparent dammar resin. The panel was comprehensively restored by Miklós Móré in 1984. A detailed on-line presentation on the restoration is available on-line.

Infrared reflectograph in greyscale


Ultraviolet-reflected image


The back side in ultraviolet-induced luminescence


Photo montage


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured drawing (Uffizi, Florence 539E) superimposed on the infrared reflectograph of the Esterházy Madonna

tech006 (Raphael 1943)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Head of an Angel

c. 1519–20
Black chalk, heightened with white
308 × 254 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1943

 

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Technique

Greyish black chalk or charcoal and brownish charcoal, heightened with white, on paper.

Inscriptions

Inscribed in pen and brown ink on the recto: ‘Raphael Urbinas/28’ and numbered in pencil on the secondary sheet of the verso: ‘No 11’

Provenance

Charles Rogers (Lugt 624); Nicolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1965 and 1966); Hungarian National Picture Gallery (Lugt 2000 and a stamp not in Lugt)

Literature

Johann David Passavant, Raphaël d’Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, 2 vols., Paris 1860, vol. 2, no. 244 (in the manner of Raphael)

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 335, no. XXIV (attributed to Raphael)

Joseph Schönbrunner and Joseph Meder, Handzeichnungen Alter Meister aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen, 12 vols., Vienna 1895–1908, no. 748 (in the manner of Sodoma)

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák és olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 37 (sixteenth-century Roman Artist)

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 24 (attributed to Raphael)

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 451

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 596

Catherine Monbeig-Goguel, ‘The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue by Paul Joannides and Raphael: Die Zeichnungen by Erwin Knab et al.’, The Burlington Magazine 126 (1984), p. 439, note 4 (doubts the attribution to Raphael)

Rolf Quedneau, Die Sala di Costantino im Vatikanischen Palast: Zur Dekoration der beiden Medici-Päpste Leo X und Clemens VII, Hildesheim and New York 1979, p. 248, note 8

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, under no. 952

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Raffaello e i Suoi: Disegni di Raffaello e della Sua Cerchia, exhibition catalogue, Rome, Villa Medici 1992, under no. 132

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 11 (attributed to Raphael)

Mauro Natale, Rafael: Retrato de un joven, exhibition catalogue, Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza 2005–6, no. 12

Tom Henry and Paul Joannides: Late Raphael, exhibition catalogue, Madrid, Museo del Prado and Paris, Musee du Louvre 2012–13, under nos. 25–28 (attributed to Giulio Romano

Condition

Paper adhered to a secondary sheet. Stained, abraded and worn overall surface. Cracks, creases and foxing throughout. Small losses at upper right. Scratches at several areas but contours not indented. A vertical crease at left caused by the folding of the sheet. Torn near the collector’s stamp at the lower left corner. Losses of the white heightening at the shoulder of the figure.

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


In raking light


tech005 (Raphael 1934)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Venus

c. 1511–14
Silverpoint
190 × 75 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1934

 

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Technique

Probably silver-based metalpoint, seemingly retouched in light brown ink, on cream coloured prepared paper. The light lines, that appeared to be silverpoint, visible in the infrared reflectograph were surprisingly not confirmed by the X-ray fluorescence analysis, which could detect traces neither of tin, iron, nor silver. We would like to thank Oliver Hahn (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung Arbeitsgruppe ‘Kunst- und Kulturgutanalyse’) for performing the examination.

Provenance

unidentified stamp (scraped out); Joshua Reynolds (Lugt 2364); Antonio Cesare Poggi (Lugt 617); Nicolaus Esterházy (without stamp), Hungarian National Picture Gallery (without stamp)

Literature

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 317, no. XXXI

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesítő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 40–101, pp. 90 and 97

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi in der Ungarischen Reichs-Gallerie’, Ungarische Revue 2 (1882), pp. 37–44

Hubert Janitschek, ‘Compte rendu de l’etude de Pulszky’, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft (7) 1884, pp. 230–31

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, p. 612, note 1

Giovanni Morelli [Ivan Lermolieff], Kunstkritische Studien über italienische Malerei: Die Galerien Borghese und Doria Pamfili in Rom, Leipzig 1890, vol. 1, pp. 27, 197, 201 and 300 (Sodoma)

Gustavo Frizzoni, Arte Italiana del Rinascimento, Milan 1891, p. 142 (Sodoma)

Richard Graul, ‘Des Giovan Antonio de’ Bazzi (Sodoma): Vermählung Alexanders mit Roxane’, Die Graphischen Künste 16 (1893), p. 35 (Sodoma)

Richard Forster, ‘Die Hochzeit des Alexander und der Roxane in der Renaissance’, Jahrbuch der Preusischen Kunstsammlungen 15 (1894), pp. 188–89

Joseph Schönbrunner and Joseph Meder, Handzeichnungen Alter Meister aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen, 12 vols., Vienna 1895–1908, no. 505 (Sodoma)

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, no. 297 (Sodoma)

Robert Henry Hobart Cust, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi Hitherto Usually Styled ‘Sodoma’: The Man and the Painter 1477–1549, London 1906, p. 366 (Sodoma)

Sándor Léderer, A Szépművészeti Múzeum milánói mesterei és Leonardo da Vinci, Budapest 1907, pp. 41–43 (Sodoma)

Simon Meller, Külföldi mesterek rajzai XIV–XVIII. század, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1911, no. 104 (Sodoma)

Simon Meller, Az Esterházy-képtár története, Budapest 1915, p. LXII

Edith Hoffmann, ‘Újabb meghatározások a rajzgyűjteményben’, Az Országos Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum Évkönyvei 6 (1929–30), pp. 140–42

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák es olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 40

Edith Hoffmann, Rajzoló eljárások, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1934, no. 81

Edith Hoffmann, Legszebb külföldi rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1936, no. 60

Oskar Fischel, Raphael, 2 vols., London 1948, p. 324

Teréz Gerszi, A múzeum legszebb rajzai, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1956, no. 45

Lajos Vayer, Meisterzeichnungen aus der Sammlung des Museums der Bildenden Künste in Budapest: (14.–18. Jahrhundert), Berlin 1957, no. 25

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 17

Ivan Fenyő, Meisterzeichnungen aus dem Museum der Schönen Künste in Budapest, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1967, no. 7

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiallítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 26

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Abteilung IX, Entwürfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511–12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972, p. 63, note 167

Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exhibition catalogue, Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art 1981, under no. 43, p. 147, note 8

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 285

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 545

Loránd Zentai in Leonardo to Van Gogh: Master Drawings from Budapest, ed. Teréz Gerszi, exhibition catalogue, Washington (DC) National Gallery of Art, Chicago, The Art Institute, and LosAngeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art 1985, no. 7

Richard Harprath, ‘Raffaels Zeichnung Merkur und Psyche: Aus Chatsworth neuerworben für München’, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 48 (1985), p. 412

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael and Pintoricchio, in Beck 1986, pp. 155–72, p. 203

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 162

Aidan Weston-Lewis in Raphael: The Pursuit of Perfection, ed. Timothy Clifford, exhibition catalogue, Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland 1994, under no. 37

David Landau and Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print 1470–1550, New Haven and London 1994, p. 125, notes 88–90

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 9

Loránd Zentai in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle1999, no. 9

Loránd Zentai in Teréz Gerszi (ed.), Dürer to Dalì: Master Drawings in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1999, no. 7

Achim Gnann in Konrad Oberhuber and Achim Gnann: Raphael und der klassische Stil in Rom: 1515–1527, exhibition catalogue, Mantua, Palazzo Tè and Vienna, Albertina 1999, under no. 33

Matthias Haldemann in LINEA: Vom Umriss zur Aktion: Die Kunst der Linie zwischen Antike und Gegenwart, ed. Matthias Haldemann, exhibition catalogue, Zug, Kunsthaus 2010–11, p. 22

Condition

Well preserved paper adhered to a secondary sheet. Smooth and slightly undulated surface. Supplements at upper right and lower left corners as well as centre right and lower left edges. A deep diagonal scratch across right centre. Abraded surface at the abdomen of the figure. A dark stain on the left thigh. An old collector’s stamp scraped out from the lower right corner, painted in darkened lead white.

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


tech003 (Raphael 2195)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195

 

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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some details probably retouched with darker brown ink, some repairs in lead white, framed in pen and black ink, on tan paper

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy (Lugt 1965); Hungarian National Picture Gallery (Lugt 2000)

Literature

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p. 36, no. 10

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: His Life and Works, 2 vols., London, 1883–85, vol. 2, p. 120 (copy after the print)

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 152, no. 378 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai, Raffaello emlékkiállítás, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1970, no. 23 (circle of Raphael)

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Abteilung IX, Entwurfe zu Werken Raphaels und seiner Schule im Vatikan 1511–12 bis 1520, Berlin 1972, pp. 23–24 (attributed to Raphael)

Edith Pogány-Balás, ‘L’influence des gravures de Mantegna sur la composition de Raphael et de Raimondi le Massacre des Innocents’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 38 (1972), p. 38 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Lawrence Nees in Rome and Venice: Prints of the High Renaissance, ed. Konrad Oberhuber, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), Fogg Art Museum 1974, under no. 12 (attributed to Raphael)

Irena du Bois-Reymond, Die römischen Antikenstiche Marcantonio Raimondis, Munich 1978, p. 126 (copy after the print)

Innis H. Shoemaker, The Engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, exhibition catalogue, Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art 1981, under no. 21 (attributed to Raphael)

Jan Johnson, ‘I chiaroscuri di Ugo da Carpi’, Il conoscitore di stampe 57–58 (1982), pp. 2–87, p. 43–44 (attributed to Raphael)

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under nos. 122, 124 and 125

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 289

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 345 (attributed to Raphael)

Erwin Mitsch, Raphael in der Albertina: Aus Anlaß der 500. Geburtstages des Künstlers, exhibition catalogue, Vienna, Albertina 1983, under no. 19 (attributed to Raphael)

David Rosand, ‘Raphael, Marcantonio, and the Icon of Pathos’, Source: Notes in the History of Art 3 (1984), pp. 34–52, p. 52, note 34 (attributed to Raphael)

Giovanni Morello Raffaello in Vaticano, ed. Fabricio Mancinelli, exhibition catalogue, Vatican, Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 1984–85, under no. 127 (copy after the print)

Francis Ames-Lewis, The Draftsman Raphael, New Haven and London 1986, p. 8

Susan Lambert, The Image Multiplied: Five Centuries of Printed Reproductions of Paintings and Drawings, London 1987, no. 141c (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, ‘Le Massacre des Innocents: Remarques sur les compositions des Raphaël et de Raimondi’, Bulletin du Musee Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 74 (1991), pp. 27–41 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Martin Clayton, Raphael and his Circle: Drawings from Windsor Castle, exhibition catalogue, London, The Queen’s Gallery, Washington (DC), The

National Gallery of Art, Toronto, The Art Gallery of Ontario, and Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum 1999–2001, under no. 20 (after Raphael)

Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina, 4 vols., Vienna 1992–97, p. 107 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi)

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 159 (attributed to Raphael)

David Landau and Peter Parshal, The Renaissance Print 1470–1550, New Haven and London 1994, pp. 123–27 (attributed to Raphael)

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 8 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Carmen C. Bambach, Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice,1300–1600, Cambridge 1999, p. 310, notes 55 and 56 (attributed to Raphael)

Robert H. Getscher, ‘The Massacre of the Innocents: An Early Work Engraved by Marcantonio’, Artibus et Historiae 39 (1999), pp. 95–111, pp. 106–7 (copy after the print)

Loránd Zentai in Von Raffael bis Tiepolo: Italienische Kunst aus der Sammlung des Fürstenhauses Esterházy, ed. István Barkóczi, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle 1999, under no. 7 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Corinna Höper, Raffael und die Folgen: Das Kunstwerk in Zeitaltern seiner graphischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Stuttgart 2001, under no. A.8.1 (attributed to Raphael)

Marilena Z. Cassimatis in In the Light of Apollo: Italian Renaissance and Greece, ed. Mina Gregori, exhibition catalogue, 2 vols., Athens, Alexandros Soutzos Museum 2003–4, under no. XI.28 (attributed to Raphael)

Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, New Haven 2004, pp. 118–36 (attributed to Marcantonio Raimondi or copy after the print)

Hugo Chapman in Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry, and Carol Plazzotta, Raphael: From Urbino to Rome, exhibition catalogue, London, National Gallery 2004, pp. 250–51, note 8 (attributed to Raphael or copy)

Norberto Gramaccini and Hans Jacob Meier, Die Kunst der Interpretation: Italienische Reproduktionsgrafik 1485–1600, Berlin and Munich 2009, under no. 58 (Raphael)

Tania Previdi in Ugo da Carpi: L’ opera incisa. Xilografie e chiaroscuri da Tiziano, Raffaello e Parmigianino, ed. Manuela Rossi, exhibition catalogue, Carpi, Palazzo dei Pio 2009, under no. 23 (Raphael)

Joachim Jacoby in Raphael: Drawings, eds. Joachim Jacoby and Martin Sonnabend, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt, Städel Museum 2012–13, under no. 28 (Raphael or copy after the print)

Zoltán Kárpáti in The Prince and the Paper: Masterworks from the Esterházy Collection, exhibition catalogue, Jerusalem, Israel Museum 2011, p. 76, no. 1 (attributed to Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi)

Achim Gnann in Achim Gnann and Michiel C. Plomp, Raphael and his School, exhibition catalogue, Haarlem, Teylers Museum 2012–13, under no. 13 (attributed to Raphael)

Condition

Extremely abraded overall surface, worn and damaged with some stains. Creases towards the bottom. Repaired tears at right and left edges. Small holes towards top. Water stains at lower centre and on the kneeling female figure at front. The severely abraded ink caused loss of details. Some parts probably retouched in a darker tone ink. Infrared reflectograph shows spolvero marks and traces of underdrawing in dry black carbon-based media, probably black chalk or charcoal.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

Watermark: visible

Chain lines: 37/41 (horizontal)

Laid lines: not visible

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


In raking light


Photo montage


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘with fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

Photo montage II


 

 

 

 

 

The digitally coloured engraving of The Massacre of the Innocents ‘without fir tree’ superimposed on the Budapest drawing

tech001 (Raphael 1779)

Raph
ael
(1483–1520)

The Assumption of the Virgin

c. 1503–4
Pen and brown ink
158 × 193 mm (arched top)
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1779

 

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Technique

Pen and brown ink, some traces of black chalk or charcoal, a fragmentary motif in red chalk, on tan paper

Provenance

Nicolaus Esterházy, Hungarian National Picture Gallery (not stamped) (Lugt 1965) 

Literature

Johann David Passavant, Raphaël d’Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, 2 vols., Paris 1860, vol. 1, p. 240

Charles Ruland, The Works of Raphael Santi da Urbino as Represented in the Raphael Collection in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, London 1876, p.103, no. 4

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi az Országos Képtárban’, Archaeológiai Értesitő N. S. 1 (1881), pp. 57–62

Károly Pulszky, ‘Raphael Santi in der Ungarischen Reichs-Gallerie’, Ungarische Revue 2 (1882), pp. 9–12

Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, Raphael: His Life and Works, 2 vols., London, 1883–85, vol. 1, p. 143

Hubert Janitschek, ‘Compte rendu de l’etude de Pulszky’, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft (7) 1884, pp. 226–31, pp. 227–28

Franz Wickhoff, ‘Über einige Zeichnungen des Pinturicchio’, Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst 1884, p. 59 (Pintoricchio)

Eugène Müntz, ‘Les dessins de la jeunesse de Raphaël’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1885, p. 338 (after Raphael)

Herman Grimm, Das Leben Raphaels, 2nd ed., Berlin 1886, p. 237 (not Raphael)

Wilhelm Koopmann, ‘Compte rendu de l’œuvre de Grimm’, Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 1886, p.264 (Pintoricchio)

Eugène Müntz, Raphaël: sa vie, son œuvre, et son temps, Paris 1886, p. 90, no. 1 (in the manner of Raphael)

Wilhelm Koopmann, ‘Einige weniger bekannte Handzeichnungen Raphaels’, Jahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen 12 (1891), p. 42

Anton Springer, Raffael und Michelangelo, 3rd ed., Leipzig 1895, vol. 1, p. 69

Handzeichnungen Alter Meister aus der Albertina und anderen Sammlungen, 12 vols., Vienna 1895–1908, no. 683

Oskar Fischel, Raphaels Zeichnungen: Versuch einer Kritik der bisher veröffentlichen Blätter, Strassburg 1898, p. 17, no. 32 (Pintoricchio)

Simon Meller, Külföldi mesterek rajzai XIV–XVIII. század, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1911, no. 111 (Pintoricchio)

Oskar Fischel, ‘Die Zeichnungen der Umbrer’, Jahrbuch der Preußischen Kunstsammlungen 38 (1917), p. 147, no. 141 (attributed to Lo Spagna)

Raimond van Marle, The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, 19 vols., Hague 1923–38, vol. 14, pp. 289 and 466 (Pintoricchio)

Edith Hoffmann, Miniatúrák es olasz rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1930, no. 15 (Lo Spagna)

Edith Hoffmann, Legszebb külföldi rajzok, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1936, no. 53 (Lo Spagna)

Lajos Vayer, Meisterzeichnungen aus der Sammlung des Museums der Bildenden Künste in Budapest: (14.–18. Jahrhundert), Berlin 1957, no. 17 (Lo Spagna)

Teréz Gerszi, A múzeum legszebb rajzai, exhibition and check-list, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1956, no. 37 (Lo Spagna)

Iván Fenyő, Középitáliai rajzok: Bologna, Firenze, Róma, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1963, no. 6 (Lo Spagna)

Loránd Zentai, ‘Contribution à la période ombrienne de Raphaël’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 53 (1979), pp. 69–79 (attributed to Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Disegni umbri del Rinascimento da Perugino a Raffaello, exhibition catalogue, Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi 1982, under no. 63 (after Raphael)

John A. Gere and Nicholas Turner, Drawings by Raphael from the Royal Library, the Ashmolean, the British Museum, Chatsworth and other English Collections, London 1983, under no. 20

Paul Joannides, The Drawings of Raphael, with a Complete Catalogue, Oxford 1983, no. 38

Eckhart Knab, Erwin Mitsch, and Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: Die Zeichnungen, Stuttgart 1983, no. 34 (probably copy)

Pierluigi de Vecchi in Raffaello in Vaticano, ed. Fabricio Mancinelli, exhibition catalogue, Vatican, Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 1984–85, under no. 1 (after Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, ‘Raffaello giovane e gli artisti umbri contemporanei’, Arte cristiana 73 (1985), p. 270, no. 709 (after Raphael)

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Iconographic Demands and Artistic Achievements: The Genesis of Three Works by Raphael, in Rome 1986, pp. 13–27, pp. 17–18

Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, The Early Raphael and His Umbrian Contemporaries, in Beck 1986, pp. 101–2 (Umbrian Artist)

Francis Ames-Lewis, The Draftsman Raphael, New Haven and London 1986, p. 33

Loránd Zentai, ‘Le Massacre des Innocents: Remarques sur les compositions des Raphael et de Raimondi’, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 74 (1991), pp. 30–31 (attributed to Raphael)

Börje Magnusson, Rafael: Teckningar, exhibition catalogue, Stockholm, Nationalmuseum 1992, no. 14

Dominique Cordellier and Bernadette Py, Inventaire Général des Dessins Italiens V: Raphaël, son Atelier, ses Copistes, Paris 1992, p. 25, under no. 17 (Anonymous Artist)

Loránd Zentai, Sixteenth-Century Central Italian Drawings: An Exhibition from the Museum’s Collection, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts 1998, no. 5 (attributed to Raphael)

Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael: The Paintings, Munich, London, and New York 1999, p. 25

Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Raphael: A Critical Catalogue of his Paintings I: The Beginnings in Umbria and Florence ca. 1500–1508, Landshut 2001, p. 130, no. A.I.1 (Anonymous Artist)

Donal Cooper, ‘Raphael’s Altar-Pieces in S. Francesco al Prato, Perugia: Patronage, Settings and Function’, The Burlington Magazine 143 (2001), p. 556, note 51 (Umbrian Artist)

Paul Joannides, Raphael and his Age: Drawings from the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, exhibition catalogue, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art and Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts 2002–3, under no. 20

Lisa Pon, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, New Haven 2004, pp. 117–18

Claudia La Malfa, Invenzioni, modelli e copie: Pintoricchio disegnatore e il rapporto con Perugino, la bottega umbra del primo Rinascimento e Raffaello, in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, pp. 347–65, pp. 362–63 (attributed to Raphael)

Tom Henry, Perugia 1502, in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, pp. 125–28 (Raphael or copy)

Tom Henry in Pintoricchio, eds. Vittoria Garibaldi and Francesco Federico Mancini, exhibition catalogue, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria 2008, no. 24 (Raphael or copy)

Condition

Trimmed paper with arched top. Extremely abraded and damaged overall surface. A vertical crease across centre caused by the folding of the sheet. Slightly damaged edges with losses and tears. A significant tear at lower centre and minor ones at the sides. Two holes at lower right. Drastically abraded and extremely faint ink. Accidental small spots of paint in red and black, and small black stains all over the surface. Infrared reflectograph shows some traces of underdrawing in dry black carbon-based media, probably black chalk or charcoal on the upper part of the central figure.

Watermark


 

 

 

 

Watermark: fragment

Chain lines: 35/38 mm (vertical)

Laid lines: 1 mm (horizontal)

In ultraviolet-induced luminescence


In ultraviolet-induced luminescence in greyscale


Infrared reflectograph


In transmitted light


In raking light