Oldal kiválasztása

THE EXHIBITION

This page contains a complete check-list with basic data, descriptive label text, and high resolution images of each exhibited work, in the order of their appearance in the show. The included prints are linked direcly with the On-Line Catalogue of Italian and French Prints before 1620 compiled by Zoltán Kárpáti and Eszter Seres in 2012. Raphael’s six Budapest drawings and the Esterházy Madonna are published under the Research section with their detailed data and complete bibliography, with the addition of high-resolution zoomable technical images.

I. The Formative Years

cat001 (Raphael 1779)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Assumption of the Virgin

c. 1503–4
Pen and brown ink
158 × 193 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1779

 

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The drawing is related to Raphael’s first Perugian altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin (Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana) for the Oddi chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato. The meticulously executed pen drawing was created for the patron for approval and provided an opportunity to request modifications before the painting’s execution. The Assumption of the Virgin originates from the early stage of preparation; Raphael painted the Coronation of the Virgin in the end. The sheet’s poor condition and the vertical crease along its central axis indicates that it was originally folded to a small size and attached to the contract.

cat002 (Raphael 1936)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Nude Studies, probably for Saint Jerome

c. 1504–5
Pen and brown ink
238 × 146 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1936
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Between 1504–1508 Raphael was active mostly in Florence. He executed a whole series of pen drawings of male figures in this period, including the Saint Jerome. As part of a series of saints, it was not made for a certain commission, but as a creative exercise. The Saint Jerome belongs to Raphael’s earliest pen drawings and bears the marks of the initial, failed attempts of the young draughtsman unfamiliar with the new technique. The contrast of the confidently drawn torso and the misconstructed and awkwardly attached left arm suggests that instead of drawing from life, Raphael worked from pattern sheets preserving motifs of various famous artworks.

II. The Massacre of the Innocents

cat003 (Pollaiuolo)


Antonio Pollaiuolo
(1432−1498)

Battle of the Nudes

c. 1470−75
Engraving
407 × 590 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25094

 

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Primary mediators between Antique and Renaissance art had been the figure studies by Pollaiuolo. The Battle of the Nudes became famous in the period above all for its virtuosity of rendering the motion of the bodies. The engraving, with its figures depicted from different views as in sculpture, served as a pattern sheet in Florentine workshops and enabled artists to study the anatomical structure of human musculature.

cat004 (Raphael 2195)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents

c. 1511–12
Pen and brown ink
260 × 400 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2195

 

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Carefully detailed and modelled drawings were needed to aid engravers in the execution of prints. The Budapest sheet was intended for this purpose, and embodies the last preparatory stage of Marcantonio Raimondi’s engraving in which Raphael’s contribution was required. Among the half a dozen drawings that survived for the print, the Budapest drawing is the only one in which all figures are found, except the two slain infants in the foreground, and even the parapet of the bridge is included. The painter needed a handling of the pen that was ideally suited to an engraving. In order to guide the printmaker, he concentrated on clarifying the lighting of the intricate multi-figured composition. This aim may lay behind the strictly descriptive manner of the drawing.

cat005 (Raimondi 5536)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents (with fir tree)

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 277 × 428 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5536
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The composition belongs to the Florentine tradition of multifigured scenes populated by male nudes, beginning with the Battle of the Nudes by Antonio Pollaiuolo. The  Massacre of the Innocents was the most celebrated and widely reproduced engraving of the period, and established the decade-long, fruitful print publishing collaboration of Raphael and the Bolognese engraver Marcantonio Raimondi. Two versions of the print have survived: the first with a small fir tree in the upper right corner, the second without.

cat006 (Raimondi H.6871)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Massacre of the Innocents (without fir tree)

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 277 × 425 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest H.6871
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The production of the new version of the engraving may have been encouraged by the success of the composition. As the original plate was in the possession of Raphael, the engraver would not have profited from its reprinting. Thus a few years later Marcantonio pirated his own best-selling work.

cat007 (Parmigianino 6291)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)

Sleeping Cupid

c. 1524−30
Etching and engraving
65 × 100 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6291

 

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Parmigianino not only cooperated with the most eminent printmakers of the period, but was the first Italian painter making etchings himself. The Sleeping Cupid is a free interpretation of the slain child in the foreground of The Massacre of the Innocents by Marcantonio Raimondi and Raphael. It was one of Parmigianino’s first etchings in which he experimented with the possibilities of the technique.

cat008 (Master ND 7333)


Master ND
(fl c. 1520−50)
After Giulio Romano
(?1499−1546)

The Massacre of the Innocents

1544
Chiaroscuro woodcut, 292 × 510 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 7333
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Colour, so-called chiaroscuro woodcuts printed from several woodblocks were extremely popular in the period. Among the few surviving works of the Bolognese woodcutter, known only after his monogram and active in the French royal court at Fontainebleau, The Massacre of the Innocents is the most ambitious. It is related to the tapestry series Life of Christ. While Raphael is named as inventor in the inscription, the composition was more possibly designed by Giulio Romano.

III. In Rome

cat009 (Raphael 1935)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Design for a Temporary Decoration (recto)

after 1509
Pen and brown ink

 

 

 


Sketches for the Disputa (verso)

c. 1508–9
Pen and brown ink
200 × 153 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1935

 

 

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The particular purpose of the pen study of the recto side is unknown, but it was possibly produced for a temporary decoration. The inclusion of trophies and Mars suggests a victory celebration, but the putto with the inverted torch rather indicates a funerary context. Raphael borrowed the pose of the main figure and the putto from the famous Antique sculpture, the Apollo Belvedere.
Raphael arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1508 to decorate the Vatican suite of rooms, the so-called Stanze, of Pope Julius II. The fresco of the Disputation of the Holy Sacrament, in the first room called Stanza della Segnatura, represents the Church on earth and in heaven, with the Trinity above an altar. Raphael created more preliminary drawings for this composition than for any other work in his career; no fewer than thirty sheets survived. This sketch for a group of cherubs and an angel of the verso side was drawn for the upper right part of the fresco.

cat010 (Franco 2196)


Giovanni Battista Franco
(?1510−1561)

Study for a Group, after Raphael’s Disputa

c. 1545
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk
241 × 395 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2196

 

 

 

The Venetian painter and engraver was active mainly in Rome and Florence. His Budapest drawing is a copy after Raphael’s preliminary study for the group at lower left in the Disputa. The original drawing, today in the British Museum, London, shows a change in Raphael’s initial concept: here he introduced the altar, the central motif for both the arrangement and content of the fresco. The Sacrament is the physical manifestation of God’s presence, and its mystical transformation into Christ’s flesh inspires the debate of the assembled theologians.

cat011 (Raimondi 25102)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

Parnassus

c. 1517−20
Engraving, 353 × 468 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25102
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Although the Mantuan engraver, Giorgio Ghisi transformed the fresco with an arched top into a rectangular format, he was certainly aware of the finished wall painting. This is proven by the inclusion of the seated figure in the foreground, usually identified as Michelangelo, that Raphael added subsequently to the fresco. The inscription describing the scene as Saint Paul preaching in Athens derives possibly from the publisher, and perhaps encouraged the selling of the print of a complex theological content.

cat012 (Ghisi 25380)


Giorgio Ghisi
(1520−1582)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The School of Athens

1550
Engraving, 500 × 397 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25380
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Although the Mantuan engraver, Giorgio Ghisi transformed the fresco with an arched top into a rectangular format, he was certainly aware of the finished wall painting. This is proven by the inclusion of the seated figure in the foreground, usually identified as Michelangelo, that Raphael added subsequently to the fresco. The inscription describing the scene as Saint Paul preaching in Athens derives possibly from the publisher, and perhaps encouraged the selling of the print of a complex theological content.

IV. The Laocoön

cat013 (Anon K.58.983)


Anonymous Artist

Laocoön

c. 1509−10
Pen and wash in brown ink
473 × 325 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest K.58.983

 

 

 

 

The Budapest drawing is one of the earliest representations of the Laocoön group, deriving from the years after the rediscovery of the famous antique sculpture in 1506 and its subsequent transfer to the Vatican. The sheet represents the fragmentary sculpture placed on the ground before a niche, which makes it one of the most significant documents of the marble’s original state preceding its restoration in the early 1520s.

cat014 (Dente 6843)


Marco Dente
(?−1527)

Laocoön

c. 1520−25
Engraving
464 × 326 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6843

 

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The engraver from Ravenna, Marco Dente worked in Rome from the mid-1510s, where he made many prints after compositions by Raphael and his circle. This engraving represents the Laocoön group with almost archaeological precision, in front of a ruinous antique wall. At the time of the print’s execution, as indicated by the inscription of the pedestal, the marble was already placed in the Belvedere courtyard, thus the background suggesting the site of its rediscovery may be the printmaker’s invention. Dente depicted the sculpture in its almost original state, without later supplements. His print shows similarities to the Budapest drawing, but has no direct connection with it.

cat015 (Dente 6863)


Marco Dente
(?−1527)
Probably after Raphael
(1483−1520)

Laocoön

c. 1517−19
Engraving, 276 × 392 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6863
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While the figures of the two sons follow the famous antique sculpture, Laocoön, with his arms raised in prayer and knees bent upon the altar, as well as the narrative details derive from a late antique illustrated manuscript, the Vatican Virgil. The codex was accessible for Raphael and his fellow artists, and the composition of Marco Dente’s print was probably designed by the painter.

cat016 (Moderno 7438)


Moderno
(1467–1528)

The Flagellation of Christ

c. 1506–9
Bronze
143 × 108 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 7438

 

 

 

Christ, tied to a column, is dependent on the pose of the Laocoön. Moderno likened the passion of the priest to the suffering of Christ, thus employing a late Hellenistic model to endow the Christian subject with intense emotional power. The sculptor may have had first-hand knowledge of the antique marble, but was probably also familiar with Marco Dente’s Laocoön and The Massacre of the Innocents by Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi, which inspired other major figures of his relief.

V. All'Antica

cat017 (Giulio Romano 1876)


Giulio Romano
(?1499–1546)

Frieze of an Acanthus Scroll

c. 1520
Pen and brown ink
264 × 148 mm
Inv. no. 1876

 

 

 

The model for the drawing was inspired by an Antique pillar or pilaster, which belonged to the famous Roman collection of cardinal Andrea della Valle. Motifs of these fragments reappear also in the Vatican Logge decorated by the Raphael workshop. During his career, Giulio repeated the acanthus scroll in many versions: they recur in the garden-side loggia of the Villa Madama, Rome, frescoed and stuccoed together with Giovanni da Udine in 1520, and later in his Mantuan works executed between 1524–1540.

cat018 (Dente 6833)


Marco Dente
(?−1527)

Ornamental Panel

early 1520s
Engraving
212 × 139 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6833

 

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Like for most of his fellow artists, Roman grotesque ornaments were accessible also for Marco Dente. However, the engraver was also inspired by the decorative motifs recreated in modern antique style by Raphael and his colleagues.

cat019 (Perino 1917-191)


Perino del Vaga
(1501−1547)

Studies for Grotesques

c. 1545
Pen and brown ink
277 × 185 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1917-191

 

 

 

The painter of Florentine origin, Perino del Vaga joined Raphael’s Roman workshop around 1517. Raphael and his assistants recreated antique grotesques on the evidence of remains in the recently discovered chambers of Nero’s palace, the Domus Aurea, decorated with diverting ensembles of interlaced garlands, bizarre animals, still-life and geometrical motifs. This sheet of studies relates to Perino’s last major undertaking, the decorations of the papal suite at Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome, executed from 1545. The inscriptions at left are instructions for the colouring.

cat020 (Perino 1864)


Perino del Vaga
(1501−1547)

Studies for Friezes and a Crouching Female Nude (recto)

 

 

 

 

 


Studies of Figures and a Frieze (verso)

c. 1537−39
Pen and brown ink, some traces of red chalk
275 × 395 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1864

 

 

 

 

 

On the sheet containing studies on both sides, Perino recorded frieze and figure studies developed from various artworks. The arrangement of the motifs indicates that the painter used the sheet first for the friezes, and filled the remaining spaces with figure studies. The source for the friezes imitating antique reliefs and depicting putti, satyrs and nymphs was probably a painted Roman façade by Polidoro da Caravaggio.

cat021 (Raimondi 2610)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)

Crouching Venus

c. 1509
Engraving
222 × 148 mm
Inv. no. 5610

 

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The main figure of the engraving derives from the same celebrated antique sculpture whose versions appear also in the sheet of studies by Perino del Vaga. Raphael borrowed the posture of the Virgin in the Esterházy Madonna, with the mediation of Leonardo’s drawings, from the same antique marble. In contrast to the frontal view of the Esterházy Madonna, Marcantonio depicted the statue from a side-view and complemented it with a Dürer-like landscape. The curiosity of the Budapest impression is that it was printed in red.

cat022 (Raphael 1934)


Raphael
(1483−1520)

Venus

c. 1511−14
Silverpoint
190 × 75 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1934

 

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The scrupulously executed classical nude, evoking the Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, is usually associated with the frescoes of the Psyche Loggia in the Villa Farnesina, Rome, completed in 1519. However, the drawing may be related to the frescoes only by virtue of its subject: not only its manner is distinct from Raphael’s late drawings, but contrary to the preparatory studies for the Loggia, almost exclusively in red chalk, it was executed in silverpoint. Although the Budapest Venus was not intended in preparation for a print, the figure reappears in an almost identical form in one of the last engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi and Raphael, The Judgement of Paris.

cat023 (Raimondi 5516)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Judgement of Paris

c. 1518−20
Engraving, 292 × 435 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5516
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The composition was adapted from two ancient Roman sarcophagi that Raphael altered in the spirit of his mature classical style. Similarly to the working method he applied for his late commissions for paintings, Raphael may have delegated the creation of preparatory drawings for prints to his assistants. The preliminary drawing for The Judgement of Paris was probably made by workshop members, utilizing Raphael’s earlier Budapest Venus.

cat024 (Bonasone 6421)


Giulio Bonasone
(c. 1510−after 1576)

The Judgement of Paris

mid-1560s
Etching
298 × 458 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6421

 

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The Bolognese printmaker often combined etching and engraving in the same print. His composition is a derivation from the engraving of the same subject by Marcantonio Raimondi and Raphael, and also directly from its Roman relief prototype. Bonasone followed the figures of the antique original very closely, but included them in a wider spatial arrangement.

VI. Eroticism in the Renaissance

cat025 (Scultori 5269)


Giovanni Battista Scultori
(1503−1575)

Mars and Venus

1539
Engraving
283 × 202 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5269

 

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Giovanni Battista Scultori started his career in the Mantuan workshop of Giulio Romano, executing stuccoes in the Palazzo del Tè. Later, as an engraver, he also primarily followed his master’s inventions. The Mars and Venus was also inspired by Giulio’s erotic compositions, most directly his painting of the same subject made for his patron, prince Federico II Gonzaga (Saint Petersburg, Hermitage).

cat026 (Giulio 2419)


Giulio Romano
(?1499−1546)

Erotic Scene

after 1524
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk,
heightened with white
130 × 226 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2419

 

 

 

Giulio Romano left Rome in 1524 to enter the service of Federico II Gonzaga at the Mantuan ducal court. Thus he avoided the Roman scandal caused by his pornographic drawings reproduced in engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi. By the order of Pope Clement VII, the series I modi (The Ways), depicting erotic postures, was destroyed and the engraver imprisoned. Giulio’s Budapest drawing of an older man and a young woman is close in spirit to the series I modi, but was executed already in Mantua. Similar erotic scenes appear among the frescoes of the Palazzo del Tè.

cat027 (Raimondi 5532)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)

Bacchanal

early 1510s
Engraving
148 × 503 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5532

 

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The pornographic engraving representing an orgy of satyrs, bacchants and bacchantes is based on the relief of a Roman sarcophagus, whose motifs appear also in Giulio Romano’s compositions for I modi. Marcantonio Raimondi freely altered and added various details to his antique prototype.

cat028 (Raimondi 5616)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

Pan and the Infant Bacchus

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 125 × 92 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5616
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It was probably Marcantonio Raimondi who devised the composition from several models. The awkward conjunction of the two figures, at the areas where they overlap, is characteristic of the engraver’s composite works. A telling example of moral purism of later centuries is that the detail regarded as scandalous was scraped out from the sheet.

cat029 (Caraglio 6758)


Jacopo Caraglio
(c. 1500/5–1565)
After Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

Vertumnus and Pomona

1527
Engraving, 210 × 136 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6758
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Among the many successors of the series I modi, the earliest was the Loves of the Gods, for which Rosso Fiorentino was first entrusted to supply drawings. Only two were completed when he fell out with the publisher Baviera, who then commissioned Perino del Vaga with the continuation of the work. The print represents the fulfilment of the love of Vertumnus, god of seasons, towards Pomona, goddess of fruitful abundance.

cat030 (Caraglio 6748)


Jacopo Caraglio
(c. 1500/5–1565)
After Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

Jupiter and Mnemosyne

1527
Engraving, 211 × 135 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6748
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Jupiter’s loves supplied the subject of five engravings of the series. Jupiter charmed Mnemosyne, goddess of memory in the guise of a shepherd, and from their nine amorous nights the muses were born. In the profane scene only the inclusion of Amor, and Jupiter’s eagle suggests that we are witnessing the love of deities. The inscription, engraved on a separate plate, belongs to another print of the series, the Apollo and Huacinthos, and was interchanged during the printing of later impressions.

VII. Raphael's Boys

cat031 (Perino 1794)


Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

Study for Saint George and the Dragon (recto)

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure Studies (verso)

c. 1535
Pen and brown ink, over red chalk
215 × 258 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1794

 

 

 

 

 

The study was realized in the acquaintance of Raphael’s Saint George, painted around 1504–5 in Florence (Washington, National Gallery of Art). However, its direct source was rather Fra Bartolommeo’s painting of the same subject, already lost, that Perino could have seen in the palace of Francesco del Pugliese during his Florentine stay in 1522–23. The Budapest drawing, made in Perino’s mature style, was executed only a decade later, from the painter’s memory or after his earlier sketches.
After the Sack of Rome in 1527, Perino del Vaga moved to Genoa, where until his return to Rome in 1538, he was primarily occupied with the decoration of the palace of his patron, Andrea Doria. The sketches on the verso also relate to the Palazzo Doria: the nude studies may be associated with the frescoes of the Stanza di Psiche, while the seated nude was made for one of the virtues in the Stanza delle Metamorfosi.

cat032 (Perino 1868)


Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths

c. 1545–47
Black chalk
197 × 284 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1868

 

 

 

The Cassetta Farnese, a silver-gilt casket made for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, was decorated with six oval rock crystals, engraved with mythological subjects (Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples). Two of the compositions are based upon antique prototypes, whereas the other four were designed by Perino del Vaga in the first half of the 1540s. Related to the corresponding scene, the Budapest drawing lacks the characteristics of finished studies. It may have been made after the crystal for another purpose, most probably a bronze plaquette.

cat034 (Perino 1838)


Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

Study for a Wall Decoration

c. 1537
Pen and wash in brown and grey ink, over black chalk
420 × 290 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1838

 

 

 

When Perino returned to Rome, one of his first commissions was the decoration of the Massimi Chapel in SS. Trinità dei Monti. The fresco cycle representing Christ’s miracles, already destroyed, was executed in 1538–1539. The meticulously drawn Budapest sheet, made in preparation of the south wall of the chapel, was most probably intended for the patron, Angelo Massimi. The central panel depicting the healing Christ is surrounded by four smaller all’antica scenes and grotesque stucco decorations.

cat035 (Polidoro 1858)


Polidoro da Caravaggio
(c. 1499–c. 1543)

Design for a Decoration

c. 1520–24
Pen and wash in brown ink
320 × 217 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1858

 

 

 

The painter of Lombardian origin and a member of Raphael’s workshop, Polidoro da Caravaggio participated in the decoration of the Vatican Logge from 1518. After Raphael’s death, he painted façade frescoes of several Roman palaces. The Budapest drawing is a design for a barrel-vaulted chamber of a palace or a villa. The grotesques of the ceiling and the illusionistic wall-decoration with fictive windows, portrait busts, and putti upholding a coat of arms was inspired by contemporary and antique models.

cat036 (Giulio 1877)


Giulio Romano
(?1499–1546)

The Entombment

Late 1520s
Pen and brown ink, over black chalk
143 × 215 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1877

 

 

 

The compositional study was probably made for the altarpiece, today lost, for the San Domenico Church in Mantua. For the composition, Giulio Romano relied on Raphael’s drawings for his painting of the same subject, completed in 1507, for the Baglioni Chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato in Perugia. In the fragmentary Budapest sheet, Giulio was searching the poses of the dynamically interacting figures.

cat037 (Giulio 2126)


Giulio Romano
(?1499–1546)

A Repast

c. 1531–34
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk, heightened with white
220 × 417 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2126

 

 

 

Between 1531–1534 Giulio Romano and his workshop was decorating the north-east wing of the Palazzo del Tè in Mantua. In the Loggia della Grotta, the garden-side loggia attached to the private apartments of Federico II Gonzaga, stages of human life were represented by genre-like scenes and moralizing allegories. This pen drawing is a study for the central fresco of the vault, depicting a family feast. The two standing figures are based on Roman models: the angel’s pose was borrowed from Michelangelo’s marble Risen Christ, while the water-pourer repeats a servant by Raphael in the Villa Farnesina.

cat038 (Raphael 1943)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Head of an Angel

c. 1519–20
Black chalk
308 × 254 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1943

 

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The decorative scheme of the Sala di Costantino, the great papal audience hall in the Vatican Palace, was conceived by Raphael, but was painted by his two principal colleagues, Giovanni Francesco Penni and Giulio Romano. The chalk drawing elaborates the head of an angel accompanying an enthroned pope, but was never executed in this form. Possibly intended as a cartoon, a full-size drawing for the transfer of contours onto the wall, it was not employed in the end. After Raphael’s death, Giulio repeated the angel’s head of the Budapest drawing in unaltered form on his cartoon for The Stoning of Saint Stephen altarpiece for the church of Santo Stefano in Genoa.

cat039 (Perino 2194)


Attributed to Perino del Vaga
(1501–1547)

The Triumph of David

c. 1516–19
Pen and wash in brown ink
262 × 397 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2194

 

 

 

Pope Leo X entrusted the decoration of the second-floor loggia of the Vatican palace to Raphael. The painter limited his participation to the preparation of designs and supervision of work, while the execution of the frescoes of Biblical themes and the all’antica stuccoes was delegated to his workshop. The severely abraded Budapest sheet, squared for transfer, was probably drawn by Perino del Vaga, who was perhaps also responsible for the painting of the corresponding vault fresco. The composition derives from a relief of the triumphal arch of Titus.

VIII. The Esterházy Madonna

cat040 (Raphael 71)


Raphael
(1483–1520)

Esterházy Madonna

c. 1507–8
Tempera and oil, on panel
28.5 × 21.5 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 71

 

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The Esterházy Madonna belongs to the small devotional pictures of the Virgin and Child that have been in great demand in Florence from the fifteenth century. It is one of a group of Leonardo-inspired pyramidal compositions dating from the end of Raphael’s Florentine sojourn. His approach to Leonardo’s models was reflective: he integrated the figures in a spacious landscape and created a compact and clear, lively ensemble by the interlocked forms and gestures. The classical ruins included in the background suggest that the painting was completed after Raphael’s move to Rome.
The small picture, executed on a very thin, therefore heavily wrapped panel, is partly unfinished. Its most transparent layers make the painting’s extensive underdrawing clearly visible. While work on the landscape and draperies had progressed quite far, the flesh tones are not completely modelled. Raphael sketched the fresh and confident underdrawing directly on the ground, possibly with silverpoint.
The painting originates from the famous collection of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy (1765–1833). A note once attached to the back of the panel, today lost, stated that the painting was presented to Empress Elizabeth Christine (1691–1750) by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721).

IX. Marcantonio withouth Raphael

cat041 (Dürer 1913-456)


Albrecht Dürer
(1471–1528)

The Visitation

c. 1503–4
Woodcut
298 × 210 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1913-456

 

 

cat042 (Raimondi 5683)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Albrecht Dürer
(1471–1528)

The Visitation

c. 1506–8
Engraving, 292 × 211 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5683
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The international fame of the prints by Albrecht Dürer must have inspired Raphael to become involved in printmaking. As the most proficient printmaker of the period and a strikingly precise imitator of Dürer’s manner, Marcantonio Raimondi was the perfect choice of collaborator. Marcantonio arrived in Venice in 1506, where he gained a considerable profit from his copies after Dürer’s prints. He engraved more than seventy prints after the German artist, and copied seventeen of his twenty woodcuts of the series Life of the Virgin. As Marcantonio even used Dürer’s monogram, the indignant painter made a complaint by the Venetian authorities. This was the first copyright case in the history of printmaking.

cat043 (Raimondi 5570)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)

David

c. 1506
Engraving
170 × 107 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5570

 

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The technique of the engraving pre-dating Marcantonio Raimondi’s Roman years also reveals the deep impact of Albrecht Dürer. Although it was suggested that one of the compositions of the Bolognese painter, Francesco Francia was the source for the print, it was probably created upon the engraver’s own invention. David’s pose was inspired by the famous antique sculpture, the Apollo Belvedere.

cat044 (Raimondi 5542)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Probably after Giorgione
(?1477/8−1510)

The Dream of Raphael

c. 1507−8
Engraving, 235 × 333 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5542
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Marcantonio Raimondi’s most famous Venetian engraving was the first print to represent a nocturnal scene. Inspired mainly by a lost painting of Giorgione, Marcantonio borrowed elements from several other artists. The sleeping women, arranged to show the female nude from two viewpoints, recall Giorgione’s figures, while the monstrous creatures derive from the strange inventions of Hieronymus Bosch, and the man descending from the wall of the burning town is a citation from Michelangelo’s Battle of Cascina.

cat045 (Raimondi 5786)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Plague (The Morbetto)

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 198 × 253 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5786
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Only four cases are known when Raphael drew with the specific intention that the design would be engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi. The Morbetto was the first occasion when instead of pen, he elaborated the composition in a tonal drawing for the engraver (Florence, Uffizi), who masterfully transferred the light and shade effects of the drawing onto the plate. Its title meaning ‘little plague’ refers to the small size of the print, whose theme derives from the Aeneid.

cat046 (Raimondi 25099)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Probably after Giulio Romano
(?1499–1546)

The Carcass (Lo Stregozzo)

c. 1520
Engraving and etching, 300 × 631 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25099
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Although sixteenth-century German prints of witchcraft are well known, the theme counts as a rarity in Italian art. This large engraving of a puzzling subject, possibly a witches’ sabbath, is intermixed with numerous antique motifs, especially those associated with bacchanals. The combination of elements related to sorcery and mythology suggests the scene is related with Hecate, the Underworld goddess of magic, and darkness. The print was executed after Raphael’s death, probably on the basis of Giulio Romano’s drawing.

X. The Vatican Tapestries

cat047 (Parmigianino 6286)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Sts Peter and John Healing a Lame Man

c. 1524−30
Etching and chiaroscuro woodcut, 268 × 401 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6286
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Despite the technical novelties, this is Parmigianino’s most conservative composition, inspired by one of Raphael’s drawings for the tapestries intended for the Sistine Chapel. By the unusual combination of etching and woodcut, Parmigianino evoked the effects of washed pen drawings. The etching was executed by Parmigianino himself, but the cutting of the woodblocks required a skilled craftsman.

cat048 (Franco 7043)


Giovanni Battista Franco
(?1510−1561)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Sts Peter and John Healing a Lame Man

mid-1540s
Etching and engraving, 272 × 406 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 7043
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Two decades after the publication of Parmigianino’s print, Raphael’s tapestry composition was also reproduced by Giovanni Battista Franco. Instead of the cartoon or Parmigianino’s print, the Venetian artist worked on the basis of Raphael’s early compositional study, today lost, in which the twisted right column was represented as a plain one.

cat049 (Carpi 6136)


Ugo da Carpi
(fl c. 1502−32)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

c. 1527−30
Chiaroscuro woodcut
231 × 345 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6136
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In 1515 Raphael was commissioned by Pope Leo X to design a series of tapestries to be hung on the walls of the Sistine Chapel, representing the acts of Saints Peter and Paul. For the tapestries to be executed far from Rome, at the Brussels workshop of the weaver Pieter van Aelst, Raphael and his assistants prepared full-size cartoons. The colour woodcut, imitating the effect of brush drawings, closely follows a study by Raphael in the Royal Collection, Windsor.

cat050 (Schiavone 6308)


Andrea Schiavone
(c. 1510−1563)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

c. 1548−52
Etching, 191 × 271 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 6308
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The Venetian painter and etcher, Andrea Schiavone got acquainted with Raphael’s composition most probably through the chiaroscuro woodcut by Ugo da Carpi. Schiavone’s painterly etchings, characterised by their soft surface and rich gradations of tone, were created with an innovative application of the technique. As in many other instances, he had no intention to imitate his model faithfully: Schiavone not only remodelled the figures and the landscape, but by placing the background mountains to the other side, he altered the arrangement of the original composition.

cat051 (Fantuzzi 5901)


Antonio Fantuzzi
(fl 1537−50)
Probably After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes

1540s
Etching, 261 × 328 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5901
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During their only several years’ activity, etchers at the Fontainebleau court of Francis I created the first significant group of French Renaissance prints. The present etching may be connected with Antonio Fantuzzi on the basis of its specific manner. Relying on an early version of Raphael’s design, preserved in a drawing at the Albertina, Vienna, its composition is dominated by the foreground figures, while the main scene is placed in the background. The addition of the landscape and the remote townscape may have been the printmaker’s own invention.

cat052 (Vincidor 2266)


Tommaso Vincidor
(?–1534)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Playing Putti

c. 1520
Pen and wash in brown ink, black chalk, heightened
213 × 288 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2266

 

 

Raphael’s assistant, Tommaso Vincidor was involved in the painting of the frescoes of the Vatican Logge. For the decoration of the walls of the Sala di Costantino, a tapestry series was commissioned by Pope Leo X. Based on the cartoons executed after designs by Giovanni da Udine, their weaving in Brussels was supervised by Vincidor from 1520. The putti of the playful scenes, surrounded by animals and festoons of flowers and fruit, derive from Raphael.

cat053 (Master of the Die 46052)


Master of the Die
(fl c. 1530–60)
After Raphael
(1483–1520)

Putti Playing

1532
Engraving, 187 × 285 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 46052
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The Roman engraver of the generation after Marcantonio Raimondi, named after his typical signature as Master of the Die, reproduced the tapestries intended for the walls of the Sala di Costantino in a set of four prints. The print with putti playing in a wood did not belong to his original series, but is also related to a design for the tapestries.

XI. The New Raphael: Parmigianino

cat054 (Raimondi 5595)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
Raphael
(1483−1520)

Quos Ego

c. 1515−16
Engraving, 430 × 330 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5595
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The ambitious print combining the features of Roman reliefs and illusionistic wall paintings embodies the perfect all’antica style. Its arrangement follows an antique relief type in which a central narrative panel is surrounded by several small subsidiary scenes. The print’s title quotes Virgil’s Aeneid, and its central scene represents the sea god Neptun calming the tempest raised by Aeolus against Aeneas’ fleet.

cat055 (Parmigianino 1893)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)

Compositional Study with the Life of the Virgin

c. 1524−27
Pen and wash in grey ink
191 × 129 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1893

 

 

 

The masterly pen drawing was inspired by Marcantonio Raimondi’s famous engraving the Quos Ego. However, Parmigianino borrowed only its peculiar structure, and replaced the classical theme with scenes from the life of the Virgin. The drawing may have served as a study for a painted or engraved frontispiece of a book, or for a goldsmith’s work, but it is also possible that Parmigianino had no specific aim and intended it simply as a compositional study.

 

 

cat056 (Parmigianino 1888)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)

Study for a Group

c. 1525−27
Pen and wash in brown ink, over black chalk, heightened
143 × 161 mm
Museum of Fine  1888

 

 

 

Although no commisions for frescoes from Parmigianino’s Roman years are documented, many compositional drawings by the artist have survived specifically for wall paintings. On the Budapest sheet he developed a detail of a large composition, perhaps a scene from the lives of the apostles. The painter, inexperienced in large-scale compositions, turned to the Vatican frescoes of his exemplar, Raphael.

cat057 (Raimondi 5517)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

The Martyrdom of Saint Cecilia

c. 1520−25
Engraving, 238 × 405 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5517
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The engraving is related to the fresco, already destroyed, designed by Raphael and executed by his workshop in 1517–1519 in the chapel of Villa Magliana, a papal retreat outside of Rome. The scene combines the martyrdom of Saint Cecilia, boiled in a cauldron of oil, with the beheading of her husband and brother-in-law.

cat058 (Caraglio 46019)


Jacopo Caraglio
(c. 1500/5–1565)
Parmigianino
(1503–1540)

The Martyrdom of Two Saints

c. 1527
Engraving, 258 × 451 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 46019
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Jacopo Caraglio was the only engraver with whom Parmigianino cooperated in Rome. The Martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul is one of the four prints that we owe to their collaboration, whose success encouraged Parmigianino to produce its woodcut version later in Bologna with Antonio da Trento. The composition combining two scenes was inspired by Marcantonio Raimondi’s Martyrdom of Saint Cecilia, from which Parmigianino not only borrowed many details but the two engravings are also of almost identical size.

cat059 (Raimondi 5585)


Marcantonio Raimondi
(1470/82−1527/34)
After Raphael
(1483−1520)

Lucretia

c. 1511−12
Engraving, 205 × 129 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 5585
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The engraving dating from Marcantonio Raimondi’s early Roman years follows a lost drawing by Raphael after an antique sculpture. Lucretia is thought to be the print to inspire the painter to provide Marcantonio with drawings to engrave. The figure of classical proportions and perfect contrapposto is completely removed from a narrative context. Marcantonio borrowed the landscape from a print by Lucas van Leyden.

cat060 (Parmigianino 1883)


Parmigianino
(1503−1540)

Studies for Lucretia, Proserpina, and Mercury

c. 1535−38
Pen and wash in brown ink, heightened
188 × 96 mm
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 1883

 

 

 

The drawing was inspired by Marcantonio Raimondi’s engraving of Lucretia that Parmigianino transformed into an elegant slim figure. For the Roman heroine’s right arm grasping a dagger, he drew a small detail study at top of the sheet, based on a live model holding a staff. The work was intended for Parmigianino’s lost painting representing the suicide of Lucretia.